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Living Standards Measurement Survey 2005
Living Standards Measurement Study
This is the fourth Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) conducted in Albania. The frist LSMS survey was conducted in 2002, the second in 2003, and the third in 2003.
Over the past decade, Albania has been seeking to develop the framework for a market economy and more open society. It has faced severe internal and external challenges in the interim – extremely low income levels and a lack of basic infrastructure, the rapid collapse of output and inflation rise after the shift in regime in 1991, the turmoil during the 1997 pyramid crisis, and the social and economic shocks accompanying the 1999 Kosovo crisis. In the face of these challenges, Albania has made notable progress in creating conditions conducive to growth and poverty reduction.
In the process leading to its first Poverty Reduction Strategy (that is the National Strategy for Socioeconomic Development, now renamed the National Strategy for Development and Integration), the Government of Albania reinforced its commitment to strengthening its own capacity to collect and analyze on a regular basis the information it needs to inform policy-making.
Multi-purpose household surveys are one of the main sources of information to determine living conditions and measure the poverty situation of a country. They provide an indispensable tool to assist policy-makers in monitoring and targeting social programs. In its first phase (2001-2006), this monitoring system included the following data collection instruments: (i) Population and Housing Census; (ii) Living Standards Measurement Surveys every 3 years, and (iii) annual panel surveys.
The Population and Housing Census (PHC) conducted in April 2001, provided the country with a much needed updated sampling frame which is one of the building blocks for the household survey structure. The focus during this first phase of the monitoring system is on a periodic LSMS (in 2002 and 2005), followed by panel surveys on a subsample of LSMS households (in 2003, and 2004), drawing heavily on the 2001 census information.
A poverty profile based on 2002 data showed that some 25 percent of the population are poor, with many others vulnerable to poverty due to their incomes being close to the poverty threshold. Income related poverty is compounded by poor access to basic infrastructure (regular supply of electricity, clean water), education and health services, housing, etc.
The 2005 LSMS was in the field between May and early July, with an additional visit to agricultural households in October, 2005. The survey work was undertaken by the Living Standards unit of INSTAT, with the technical assistance of the World Bank.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Units of Analysis
Contents of the 2005 Albania LSMS household questionnaire
1. Household roster Details of household members and parents and languages spoken
Part A. Pre-school: attendance, type of school, costs.
Part B. Schooling: attainment, attendance and costs.
Part C: Parental opinion on children’s schooling
3. Communication Use and access to internet and possession of mobile phones
4. Labor Part A. Labor force participation
Part B. Overview last 7 days
Part C. Main and secondary job in the last 7 days
Part D. Employment history
5. Non-farm business Ownership, number and sources of start-up capital for non-farm businesses
6. Migration Part A: Internal migration of household members
Part B: International migration of household members
Part C: Children living away and migration history
Part D: Siblings of head and spouse
Part E: Shocks to the household
7. Subjective poverty Subjective assessment of the household financial situation in absolute and relative/comparative terms
9. Health Part. A. General health status
Part B. Access to health care
10. Fertility Part A. Fertility, pre-natal visits, and child health knowledge.
11. Check form Check form for food diary enumerator
12. Nonfood expenditures
Part A. Purchases in the past 30 days
Part B. Purchases in the past 6 months
Part C. Purchases in the past 12 months
13. Dwelling, utilities and durable goods
Part A. description of Dwelling
Part B. Utilities
Part C. Household durables
14. Transfers and social assistance
Part C. Social assistance programs: number of members, benefit levels, and benefit arrears.
15. Other income Income from rents, sales of assets, inheritance, gambling, and 'other'
16. Social capital Groups and networks, Trust and solidarity, Collective action and cooperation, Social cohesion and inclusion, empowerment and political action
17. Agricultural households
Part 1. Plots owned and/or cultivated:
Part 2. Plots sold since 1991
Part 3. Annual crops
Part 4. Tree crops.
Part 5. Livestock
Part 6. Agricultural byproducts
Part 7. Agricultural machinery and equipment
Part 8. Extension services and rural development project participation
Part 9. Agricultural expenditures
Part 10. Capital investments
Part 11. Rural pension system
Contents of the 2005 Albania LSMS community questionnaire
1. Respondent characteristics
1A: Identification of the community, separately for urban and rural areas
1B: Respondent characteristics - Name, age, sex, position, schooling, length of presence in the community.
2. Basic characteristics of the community: Definition of the community and population (rural areas), housing and living conditions, main problems, transport access types available
3. Access to public services
3A. Community infrastructure and transportation: School, health, communications, other services
3B. Education services: New schools, number of teachers, number of pupils, number of days operating
3C. Health: Availability of health center, number of days open, equipment, personnel
3D. Quality of public transport services: Improved/worsened, main problems, frequency
4. Community services
4A. Service availability, quality, coverage – General: Electricity, public lights, sewage, garbage, phones, mail, police
4B. Service quality – Specific: Sewage and garbage collection
5. Community organization
5A. Organizations: Presence of committees or organizations within the community
5B. Collective actions: Community meetings and coordinated action to solve community problems; who works most to solve community problems, knowledge of Albania PRSP
6. Community safety Drug abuse, crimes
7. Migration Migration from and to the community
8. Albanian Development Fund
9. Problems related to the environment: Problems with insects, parasites etc.; diseases; unsafe garbage disposal, polluting activities
10. Credit Sources of credit (formal and informal); prevailing interest rate
Domains: Tirana, other urban, rural; Agro-ecological areas (coastal, central, mountain)