The section provides a detailed description of the study (i.e. the metadata). Topics covered relate to the survey methodology, sampling methods, data collection, funding, dates of collection, geographical coverage and the access policy for the data from this study. Download the metadata in a number of formats from the Export metadata link.
Expenditure and Service Delivery Survey in Education 2002
A Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) is a diagnostic tool used to study the flow of public funds from the center to service providers. It has successfully been applied in many countries around the world where public accounting systems function poorly or provide unreliable information. The PETS has proven to be a useful tool to identify and quantify the leakage of funds. The PETS has also served as an analytical tool for understanding the causes underlying problems, so that informed policies can be developed. Finally, PETS results have successfully been used to improve transparency and accountability by supporting "power of information" campaigns.
PETS are often combined with Quantitative Service Delivery Surveys (QSDS) in order to obtain a more complete picture of the efficiency and equity of a public allocation system, activities at the provider level, as well as various agents involved in the process of service delivery.
While most of PETS and QSDS have been conducted in the health and education sectors, a few have also covered other sectors, such as justice, Early Childhood Programs, water, agriculture, and rural roads.
In the past decade, about 40 PETS and QSDS have been implemented in about 30 countries. While a large majority of these surveys have been conducted in Africa, which currently accounts for 66 percent of the total number of studies, PETS/QSDS have been implemented in all six regions of the World Bank (East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa).
v01 - Final, edited datasets.
Documented here are final, cleaned datasets prepared by the World Bank based on raw datasets provided by the study researchers.
The description of the difference between raw and edited datasets is taken from "Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" (p.10):
"Each country set includes two data files. The first file, the "raw" data file, presents the data as collected and entered by the survey teams. While field teams do conduct very high-level coherence tests with regards to responses collected, the data contained therein has generally not been thoroughly checked for internal coherence across questions, variable outliers and other such involved data cleaning procedures.
Finally, independently of the values presented in the questionnaires, missing values are replaced across all "final" data sets to ensure consistency across countries. Following industry best practices, negative 3-digit integers are used in order to ensure there is no confusion between missing values and valid data points. "
"Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" is available in external resources.
This study is a part of a larger project on education in Zambia. The overall project included the schools survey, provincial education offices and district education offices surveys, testing of students in sampled schools, the household survey and the student survey. The project covered households in a catchment area of 36 isolated schools. Researchers also proposed to re-test students who participated in tests under 2001 National Assessment Survey (NAS). As part of the re-testing exercise, 3,200 pupils formed the initial sample for the administration of tests in English, mathematics, and vernacular. In addition, 20 randomly chosen students from Grade V and Grade VI were interviewed for the student survey.
Documented here are datasets covering schools, Provincial Education Offices (PEO) and District Education Offices (DEO).
Education expenditures in Zambia (apart from teacher salaries) are distributed through an administrative hierarchy consisting of PEOs and DEOs. The survey data contain a detailed tracking of resources allocated by the government through this hierarchy to schools. Approaches of public expenditure tracking surveys (PETS) and quantitative service delivery surveys (QSDS) are integrated in this study.
The study was carried out by the Government of Zambia and the World Bank. It covered 184 primary (grades 1-7) and basic (grades 1-9) schools, 33 DEOs and four PEOs in four provinces: Lusaka, Copperbelt, Northern, and Eastern.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Units of Analysis
- District Education Offices;
- Provincial Education Offices;
The scope of the study includes:
- District Education Offices (DEO): demographics of DEO, characteristics of DEO, decision process, shortages and requests, school visits, complaints, meetings with PEO/Ministry of Education representatives, funding, expenditures in the last month, receipts by schools.
- Provincial Education Offices (PEO): demographics of PEO, characteristics of PEO, decision process, shortages and requests, school visits, complaints, meetings with Ministry of Education representatives, funding, expenditures in the last month, receipts by district and by schools.
- Schools: characteristics of schools (type, special programs, number of students, alternative schools), characteristics of students (ethnic groups, where do children come from), facilities, school location, enrolment, grade repetition, dropouts, reasons for dropouts, school finances and sources of support, payment of fees, external funding, educational materials, and use of funds.
- Head-Teachers: demographics, characteristics of head-teachers, remuneration of head-teachers, teacher absenteeism and turnover, students' attendance, DEO/PEO contacts and visits, Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) activities and fees, decision process, shortages and requests.
- Teachers: demographics, characteristics of teachers, remuneration of teachers, and classroom facilities.
Lusaka, Copperbelt, Northern, and Eastern provinces.