The Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) is a community-driven development operation launched by the government of the United Republic of Tanzania in 2000, as one of the instruments to fight poverty.
The second phase of the project -TASAF II - began in 2005. The program's financing targeted three main groups: service poor communities (improvement of social services and infrastructure), food insecure households (public works programs where beneficiaries receive cash for work) and vulnerable groups - the elderly, people with disabilities, widows, orphans, and those living with HIV/AIDS (income generation projects such as animal husbandry, tailoring, milling, vegetable growing, etc.).
In 2006, it was decided that impact evaluation should focus on the vulnerable group component of TASAF II. World Bank and TASAF representatives designed a randomized experiment to evaluate the impact of providing income generating projects to vulnerable groups on various outcomes, including health, nutrition, education, poverty, consumption, insurance, and social capital.
The study included a random assignment of villages into treatment and control groups, where the villages in the control group receive their projects with a delay of 12 months. The first (baseline) round of the impact evaluation study was conducted from April to November 2008. Datasets from this round are documented here. The second round was carried out in 2009, and the third assessment was implemented in 2012.
The first round of the study took place in five (out of 121) districts: Moshi, Kwimba, Lushoto, Makete, and Nzega. In each district, all vulnerable groups in 20 villages were evaluated. In every selected village, researchers conducted detailed surveys for 15-20 households, as well as small census. Overall, 1,544 households completed detailed household survey.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 1.0, Public Use Files
- Demographic characteristics of household members;
- Children's nutrition and care;
- Children's measurements;
- Amenities (dwelling, drinking water, toilet, energy used for lighting);
- Transfers (cash transfers, gifts);
- Information sources;
- Self-help groups;
- Time preference and risk aversion;
- Consumption (food consumption, personal consumption).
Moshi, Kwimba, Lushoto, Makete, and Nzega districts.
Producers and sponsors
George Washington University
University of California San Diego
World Bank, TFESSD
World Bank, Spanish Impact Evaluation Trust Fund
World Bank, Government Accountability Project
First, five districts, broadly representative of the country as a whole, were selected. These districts were Moshi, Kwimba, Lushoto, Makete, and Nzega. Within these study districts, TASAF officials were asked to provide 20 villages in which Vulnerable Groups (VG) applications had moved through the submission process to the point at which they were ready to be funded, but had not yet received any money. Thus while the districts that form the study are in some general sense representative, the sample of villages was selected based on the following criterion: being at a specific stage in the VG application process. Within the 100 study villages, researchers interviewed every household using a short listing survey, providing a census of 61,611 households.
Each household was then sorted into one of the following strata:
- Village elites (Village Executive Office and the village chairman),
- Ineligible households (i.e. households with no vulnerable individuals as defined by TASAF),
- Eligible non-beneficiaries (households with at least one vulnerable individual but not benefitting from any VG sub-projects),
- VG Beneficiaries (households with at least one vulnerable individual and benefitting from a VG sub-project). This group was further stratified into two groups:
1) VG group leaders (chairperson, secretary, and treasurer, who hold signatory power over group accounts),
2) VG "rank and file" members (the rest of the group conducting the proposed income generating activity - with no signatory powers over the group accounts).
Within each village, a short listing survey was given to every household. A long listing survey was given to all village elites, all households with vulnerable members (including VG beneficiaries and eligible non-beneficiaries - 38,871 households in total), and to a randomly selected sample of ineligible households.
In each of the 100 villages, a household survey was conducted with the two village elites, the three group leaders from each TASAF II group, three randomly sampled "rank and file" members from each TASAF II group, three randomly sampled households from all "eligible non-beneficiaries" in each village, and three randomly selected households from all "ineligible" households in each village. Hence, in a typical village with one TASAF II group funded to run an income generating activity, the sample size was 14. There were 1,544 households that completed the household survey in the 100 villages.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Detailed information about data collection supervision is available in "Field Supervisor's Manual" in external resources.
Economic Development Initiatives
The following survey instruments were used in the study:
1) Short listing survey.
Within each village, a short listing survey was given to every household. The short listing survey collected basic demographic information about the household (e.g. household size and age of the eldest household members), GPS data, and determined whether or not the household contained a vulnerable member.
2) Long listing survey.
The long listing survey collected more detailed data, including household amenities, characteristics of the household head, holdings of assets, and basic consumption data.
3) Household Questionnaire - "HH QX TASAF II Impact Evaluation".
The household survey contained detailed consumption data at the household level, limited consumption data at the individual level, as well as collecting information on distance to the village center, the education of the household head, asset ownership, participation in village meetings, whether household members hold political office in the village, and blood relationships between household memberships and village elites.
Detailed information about data processing is available in "Data Processing Manual" in external resources.
Public use files.
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Sarah Baird, George Washington University, Craig McIntosh, University of California San Diego, Berk Ozler, World Bank. Tanzania Second Social Action Fund (TASAF II) - Vulnerable Groups Impact Evaluation - Round I, Household Survey 2008, Ref. TZA_2008_TASAF-II_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.