Schooling, Income, and Health Risk Impact Evaluation Household Survey 2007-2008, Round I (Baseline)
Round I (Baseline)
Malawi Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCT) is a randomized cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Zomba region. The program provides incentives to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. The incentives include average payment of US$10 a month conditional on satisfactory school attendance and direct payment of secondary school fees.
The CCT program started at the beginning of the Malawian school year in January 2008 and continued until November 2009. The impact evaluation study was designed to evaluate the impact of the program on various demographic and health outcomes of its target population, such as nutritional health, sexual behavior, fertility, and subsequent HIV risk.
Baseline data collection was administered from September 2007 to January 2008. The research targeted girls and young women, between the ages of 13 and 22, who were never married. Overall, 3,810 girls and young women were surveyed in the first round. The follow-up survey was carried out from October 2008 to February 2009. The third round was conducted between March and September 2010, after Malawi Conditional Cash Transfer Program was completed. The fourth round started in April 2012 and will continue until September 2012.
Datasets from the baseline round are documented here.
Enumeration Areas (EAs) in the study district of Zomba were selected from the universe of EAs produced by the National Statistics Office of Malawi from the 1998 Census. 176 enumeration areas were randomly sampled out of a total of 550 EAs using three strata: urban areas, rural areas near Zomba Town, and rural areas far from Zomba Town.
Baseline schoolgirls in treatment enumeration areas were randomly assigned to receive either conditional or unconditional transfers, or no transfers at all. A multi-topic questionnaire was administered to the heads of households, where the selected sample respondents resided, as well as to girls and young women.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Girls and young women.
v 2.1. Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution; first version.
The scope of the study includes:
- Household Characteristics;
- Dwelling Characteristics;
- Durable Goods;
- Consumption of Food over Past One Week;
- Total Expenditures over Past Month;
- Safety Nets;
- Economic Shocks;
- Family Background;
- Education and Labor;
- Health and Fertility;
- Sexual Behaviors;
- Social Networks.
Zomba district in the Southern region was chosen as the site for this study for several reasons. First, it has a large enough population within a small enough geographic area rendering field work
logistics easier and keeping transport costs lower. Zomba is a highly populated district, but distances from the district capital (Zomba Town) are relatively small. Second, characteristic of Southern Malawi, Zomba has a high rate of school dropouts and low educational attainment. Third, unlike many other districts, Zomba has the advantage of having a true urban center as well
as rural areas. As the study sample was stratified to get representative samples from urban areas (Zomba town), rural areas near Zomba town, and distant rural areas in the district, we can analyze the heterogeneity of the impacts by urban/rural areas. Finally, while Southern Malawi, which includes Zomba, is poorer, has lower levels of education, and higher rates of HIV than Central and Northern Malawi, these differences are relative considering that Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world with one of the highest rates of HIV prevalence.
The survey covers never married girls and young women between the ages of 13 and 22 in Zomba district.
Producers and sponsors
George Washington University
University of California San Diego
World Bank, Spanish Impact Evaluation Fund
Global Development Network
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
NBER Africa Project
World Bank Research Support Budget Grant
World Bank, Knowledge for Change Trust Fund
World Bank, World Development Report 2007 Small Grants Fund
World Bank, Gender Action Plan Trust Fund
First, 176 enumeration areas (EA) were randomly sampled out of a total of 550 EAs using three strata in the study district of Zomba. Each of these 176 EAs were then randomly assigned treatment or control status. The three strata are urban, rural areas near Zomba Town, and rural areas far from Zomba Town. Rural areas were defined as being near if they were within a 16-kilometer radius of Zomba Town. Researchers did not sample any EAs in TA Mbiza due to safety concerns (112 EAs).
Enumeration areas (EAs) in Zomba were selected from the universe of EAs produced by the National Statistics Office of Malawi from the 1998 Census. The sample of EAs was stratified by distance to the nearest township or trading centre. Of the 550 EAs in Zomba, 50 are in Zomba town and an additional 30 are classified as urban (township or trading center), while the remaining 470 are rural (population areas, or PAs). The stratified random sample of 176 EAs consisted of 29 EAs in Zomba town, eight trading centers in Zomba rural, 111 population areas within 16 kilometers of Zomba town, and 28 EAs more than 16 kilometers from Zomba town.
After selecting sample EAs, all households were listed in the 176 sample EAs using a short two-stage listing procedure. The first form, Form A, asked each household the following question: "Are there any never-married girls in this household who are between the ages of 13 and 22?" This form allowed the field teams to quickly identify households with members fitting into the sampling frame, thus significantly reducing the costs of listing. If the answer received on Form A was a "yes", then Form B was filled to list members of the household to collect data on age, marital status, current schooling status, etc.
From this researchers could categorize the target population into two main groups: those who were out of school at baseline (baseline dropouts) and those who were in school at baseline (baseline schoolgirls). These two groups comprise the basis of our sampling frame. In each EA, enumerators sampled all eligible dropouts and 75%-100% of all eligible school girls, where the percentage depended on the age of the baseline schoolgirl. This sampling procedure led to a total sample size of 3,810 (in the first round, and 3,805 in follow-up rounds) with an average of 5.1 dropouts and 16.7 schoolgirls per EA.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The annual household survey consists of a multi-topic questionnaire administered to the households in which the selected sample respondents reside. The survey consists of two parts: one that is administered to the head of the household and another that is administered to the core respondent - the sampled girl from the target population. The former collects information on the household roster, dwelling characteristics, household assets and durables, shocks and consumption. The core respondent survey provides information about her family background, her education and labor market participation, her health, her dating patterns, sexual behavior, marital expectations, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, her social networks, as well as her own consumption of girl-specific goods (such as soaps, mobile phone airtime, clothing, braids, sodas and alcoholic drinks, etc.).
Public Use Files
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Sarah Baird, George Washington University, Craig McIntosh, University of California San Diego, Berk Ozler, World Bank. Malawi Schooling, Income, and Health Risk Impact Evaluation Household Survey (SIHR) 2007-2008, Round I (Baseline), Ref. MWI_2007_SIHR_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group (DECDG)
Documentation of the survey meta- and microdata in DDI format