The Management Practices Survey was conducted in Sri Lanka by the World Bank between June and November 2011. The survey was administered to a representative sample of firms in the non-agricultural formal private economy. Data from 836 establishments in services, manufacturing, ICT manufacturing and services, hospitality and health sectors was analyzed.
The objective of the survey was to obtain feedback from enterprises on the state of the private sector in Sri Lanka. The topics included infrastructure, sales and supplies, finance, regulations, business-government relations, corruption, informality, use of information and communications technology, labor, perceptions about obstacles to doing business, and operational practices in product and process innovation and management. Health care providers and tourism firms were also asked industry specific questions.
Three survey instruments were used in the research. Management Practices across Sectors Questionnaire was administered to manufacturing and services firms, Health Sector Questionnaire was used for private health providers, and hospitality firms were interviewed with the help of Tourism Sector Questionnaire.
This study was carried out simultaneously with Sri Lanka Enterprise Survey, also an initiative of the World Bank. The Management Practices Survey and Enterprise Surveys have similar sampling and implementation techniques, and for some topics - corresponding questions.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
First version of the dataset
Regions covered are selected based on the number of establishments, contribution to employment, and value added. In most cases these regions are metropolitan areas and reflect the largest centers of economic activity in a country.
Unit of analysis
The primary sampling unit of the study is the establishment. An establishment is a physical location where business is carried out and where industrial operations take place or services are provided. A firm may be composed of one or more establishments. For example, a brewery may have several bottling plants and several establishments for distribution. For the purposes of this survey an establishment must make its own financial decisions and have its own financial statements separate from those of the firm. An establishment must also have its own management and control over its payroll.
The whole population, or universe of the study, is the non-agricultural economy. It comprises: all manufacturing sectors according to the group classification of ISIC Revision 3.1: (group D), construction sector (group F), services sector (groups G and H), and transport, storage, and communications sector (group I). Note that this definition excludes the following sectors: financial intermediation (group J), real estate and renting activities (group K, except sub-sector 72, IT, which was added to the population under study), and all public or utilities-sectors. The universe also included private health care providers.
Producers and sponsors
The sample for Sri Lanka was selected using stratified random sampling. Three levels of stratification were used: industry, establishment size, and region.
For industry stratification, the universe was divided into three manufacturing sectors, two services industries, and two residual sectors. Each industry had a target of 120 interviews, while the residual sectors had a target of 100 interviews each.
Size stratification was defined the following way: small (5 to 19 employees), medium (20 to 99 employees), and large (more than 99 employees). For stratification purposes, the number of employees was defined on the basis of reported permanent full-time workers. Size stratification was not possible in the ICT manufacturing and services, health, and tourism sectors as the lists used did not contain size information.
Regional stratification was defined by nine regions: Eastern, Western, Southern, Central, Northern, North-Central, North-West, Uva, Sabaragamuwa.
Several sampling frames were used in the survey. The first sample frame was obtained from the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) of Sri Lanka, the information was from 2003. Additional lists were used to supplement the DCS frame for the IT, health and tourism sectors. These lists were from:
- ICT/Computer Association;
- Federation of Information Technology Industry Sri Lanka;
- Sri Lanka Association of Software and Service Companies;
- Sri Lanka Tourism Promotion Bureau;
- Local Chamber of Commerce/Trade Associations.
The quality of the frame was assessed at the onset of the project through calls to a random subset of firms, and local contractor knowledge. The sample frame was not immune from the typical problems found in establishment surveys: positive rates of non-eligibility, repetition, non-existent units, etc. Due to response rate and ineligibility issues, additional sample had to be extracted by Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka and the World Bank in order to obtain enough eligible contacts and meet the sample targets.
Given the impact that non-eligible units included in the sample universe may have on the results, adjustments may be needed when computing the appropriate weights for individual observations. The percentage of confirmed non-eligible units as a proportion of the total number of sampled establishments contacted for the survey was 54% (860 out of 1593 establishments).
Breaking down by industry, the following numbers of establishments were surveyed: food - 121, light manufacturing - 125, ICT manufacturing and services - 106, other manufacturing - 116, private healthcare services - 120, tourism related services - 124, and other services - 124.
The number of contacted establishments per realized interview was 1.39. This number is the result of two factors: explicit refusals to participate in the survey, as reflected by the rate of rejection (which includes rejections of the screener and the main survey) and the quality of the sample frame, as represented by the presence of ineligible units. The number of rejections per contact was 0.287.
Item non-response was addressed by two strategies:
a- For sensitive questions that may generate negative reactions from the respondent, such as corruption or tax evasion, enumerators were instructed to collect the refusal to respond as a different option from don’t know.
b- Establishments with incomplete information were re-contacted in order to complete this information, whenever necessary.
Survey non-response was addressed by maximizing efforts to contact establishments that were initially selected for interview. Attempts were made to contact the establishment for interview at different times/days of the week before a replacement establishment (with similar strata characteristics) was suggested for interview. Survey non-response did occur but substitutions were made in order to potentially achieve strata-specific goals.
For some units it was impossible to determine eligibility because the contact was not successfully completed. Consequently, different assumptions as to their eligibility result in different universe cells' adjustments and in different sampling weights. Three sets of assumptions were considered:
a- Strict assumption: eligible establishments are only those for which it was possible to directly determine eligibility.
b- Median assumption: eligible establishments are those for which it was possible to directly determine eligibility and those that rejected the screener questionnaire or an answering machine or fax was the only response.
c- Weak assumption: in addition to the establishments included in points a and b, all establishments for which it was not possible to finalize a contact are assumed eligible. This includes establishments with dead or out of service phone lines, establishments that never answered the phone, and establishments with incorrect addresses for which it was impossible to find a new address. Note that under the weak assumption only observed non-eligible units are excluded from universe projections.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
Complete information regarding the sampling methodology, sample frame, weights, response rates, and implementation can be found in "Description of Sri Lanka Management Practices Survey Implementation" in external resources.
The following survey instruments are available:
- Management Practices across Sectors Questionnaire;
- Tourism Sector Questionnaire;
- Health Sector Questionnaire;
- Screener Questionnaire.
Management Practices across Sectors Questionnaire is a core questionnaire. It is based on the Enterprise Surveys questionnaire, but adds some specific questions relevant to management practices. Tourism Sector Questionnaire adds to the core specific questions relevant to the tourism industry. Similarly, Health Sector Questionnaire contains many of the core items from the first questionnaire, but is custom tailored to the technology and services present in the health sector.
The Nielsen Company Lanak (Pvt) Ltd
Data entry and quality controls are implemented by the contractor and data is delivered to the World Bank in batches (typically 10%, 50% and 100%). These data deliveries are checked for logical consistency, out of range values, skip patterns, and duplicate entries. Problems are flagged by the World Bank and corrected by the implementing contractor through data checks, callbacks, and revisiting establishments.
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
Aggregate indicators based on Enterprise Survey data are available to the public at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org
Firm-level data is also available to the public free-of-charge. In order to access the firm-level data, users must agree to abide by a strict confidentiality agreement available through Enterprise Analysis Unit website by clicking on "External users register here" at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/Portal
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name);
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation;
- the survey reference number;
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
World Bank. Sri Lanka Management Practices Survey (MPS) 2011, Ref. LKA_2011_MPS_v01_M_WB. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Enterprise Analysis Unit
Data Development Group (DECDG)
Documentation of the survey micro- and metadata information in DDI format
First version of metadata and external resources description.