Baseline Survey on Poverty, Welfare and Services in Kagera Rural Districts
The Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ) currently constitutes one of the largest socio-economic household survey databases on Tanzania. Since 2003 EDI has interviewed roughly 20,000 households in 35 different districts. For 9 districts repeat surveys have been organised to track changes over time.
Rationale: Absence of district level survey data does not rhyme with the devolution of power to districts. Tanzania is undergoing a decentralisation process whereby each of its roughly 128 districts is becoming an increasingly important policy actor. A district taking on this challenge needs accurate information to monitor and develop its own policies. Much relevant information is currently not available as national statistics are not representative at district level and many of the routine data collection mechanisms are still under development. CWIQ then provides an attractive, one-stop survey-based method to collect basic development indicators. Furthermore, the survey results can be disseminated - through Swahili briefs and posters - to a district's population; thus increasing the extent to which people are able to hold their local governments accountable. Exciting new ground is being broken on such population-wide dissemination by the Prime Minister's Office.
Methodology: The data are collected through a small 10-page questionnaire, called the Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ). The questionnaire and data software constitute an off-the-shelf survey package developed by the World Bank to produce standardised monitoring indicators of welfare. The questionnaire is purposively concise and is designed to collect information on household demographics, employment, education, health and nutrition as well as utilisation and satisfaction with social services. Questionnaires are scannable, with interviewers shading bubbles and writing numbers later recognised by the scanning software. The data system is fully automated allowing the results to roll out within weeks of the fieldwork.
Funding: projects are typically funded by organisations that care about making decentralisation work in Tanzania. CWIQ is a method to promote evidence-based policy formulation and debate in the district and a tool for the population to hold their local governments accountable. With funding from the RNE (Royal Netherlands Embassy) and SNV (Stichting Nederlands Vrijwilligers), CWIQ surveys were implemented between 2003-2005 in 16 districts. In 2006/07 PMO-RALG (Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local Government) commissioned EDI to cover a further 28 districts. In 9 of these districts this constituted a repeat survey and thus a unique opportunity arises to monitor changes that occurred in the district over this time period.
Dissemination: EDI disseminated the results of CWIQ on posters and briefs to district level stakeholders (councillors, district officials, NGOs, CBOs, Advocacy Groups, MPs, 'interested citizens', etc.), with the aim at district level, to: (i) promote evidence-based policy debate, (ii) promote evidence-based policy formulation, (iii) provide tools for district level M&E and (iv) increase accountability of LGA to citizens.
Public Domain: Currently in the public domain are (i) all CWIQ reports - note that Shinyanga 2004 and Kagera 2003 reports are organised into one region-wide report (ii) Swahili and English briefs for 5 pilot dissemination districts funded by the Prime Minister's Office - and (iii) raw data for all CWIQs conducted between 2003 and 2007.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Five rural districts of Kagera: Ngara, Biharamulo, Muleba, Bukoba Rural and Karagwe.
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
EDI Ltd (Economic Development Initiatives)
Royal Netherlands Embassy - District Rural Development Programme
Data from the 2002 Population and Housing Census was used to select 15 households in 30 Enumeration areas in each rural district of the Kagera region. This brings the total number of households to 450 per district or 2,250 at rural regional level. Selection of households did not include refugee camps. Households were further stratified into rural and peri-urban areas and given statistical weights reflecting the number of households they represent.
Dates of collection
Supervisor and Interviewer Training
Mode of data collection
Due to logistical constraints the completed questionnaires could not be scanned and automatically analysed through CWIQ software. This meant that the lay-out of the questionnaire had to be redesigned slightly to allow easy manual data entry. In order to avoid any problems with coding, missing variables, outliers etc. and to keep continuous thorough checks throughout the data analysis process, all tables and figures were manually produced and assessed for consistency with the data.
Data analysis started in the middle of December and took around three months to complete.CWIQ does not collect information on consumption and thus cannot directly calculate poverty rates. Therefore the 2000/01 Tanzania Household Budget Survey (HBS) was used to determine predictors of poverty that are included in CWIQ, or could be easily added without delaying the field work. Through regression analysis weights for each poverty predictor were determined. By way of this weighted sum of poverty predictors each household can be predicted to either lie above or below the poverty line. This allows Rural Kagera CWIQ to analyse all data by (predicted) poverty status of the household.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
- Public use files, accessible to all
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
EDI Ltd (Economic Development Initiatives).Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire - Baseline Survey on Poverty, Welfare Services in Kagera Rural Districts Tanzania (CWIQ) 2003 . Ref. TZA_2003_CWIQ_v01_M. Downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 29 March 2011.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.