The 2000 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (ADHS) is the first multipurpose health survey conducted in Armenia.
The Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (ADHS) was a nationally representative sample survey designed to provide information on population and health issues in Armenia. The primary goal of the survey was to develop a single integrated set of demographic and health data, the first such data set pertaining to the population of the Republic of Armenia. In addition to integrating measures of reproductive, child, and adult health, another feature of the DHS survey is that the majority of data are presented at the marz level.
The ADHS was conducted by the National Statistical Service and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Armenia during October through December 2000. ORC Macro provided technical support for the survey through the MEASURE DHS+ project. MEASURE DHS+ is a worldwide project, sponsored by the USAID, with a mandate to assist countries in obtaining information on key population and health indicators. USAID/Armenia provided funding for the survey. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)/Armenia provided support through the donation of equipment.
The ADHS collected national- and regional-level data on fertility and contraceptive use, maternal and child health, adult health, and AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The survey obtained detailed information on these issues from women of reproductive age and, on certain topics, from men as well. Data are presented by marz wherever sample size permits.
The ADHS results are intended to provide the information needed to evaluate existing social programs and to design new strategies for improving the health of and health services for the people of Armenia. The ADHS also contributes to the growing international database on demographic and health-related variables.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-54
The 2000 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Anemia Questions–Questions or testing assessing prevalence/severity of iron-def. anemia among women or children
- Anemia Testing
- Birth Registration
- Full Pregnancy History–All surveys with the calendar and surveys that use DHS+ core questionnaire include a five-year calendar. Purpose to calculate abortion rates and neonatal rates if the calendar is not available.
- HIV Behavior
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Iodine salt test
- Men's Survey
- Reproductive Calendar
- TB Questions
- Women's Status–Questions: women's autonomy (household decisionmaking/free movement/access money) & Dom. violence.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Service
Ministry of Health
United State Agency for International Development, Armenia
United Nations Children's Fund, Armenia
Provided support through the donation of equipment.
The sample was designed to provide estimates of most survey indicators (including fertility, abortion, and contraceptive prevalence) for Yerevan and each of the other ten administrative regions (marzes). The design also called for estimates of infant and child mortality at the national level for Yerevan and other urban areas and rural areas.
The target sample size of 6,500 completed interviews with women age 15-49 was allocated as follows: 1,500 to Yerevan and 500 to each of the ten marzes. Within each marz, the sample was allocated between urban and rural areas in proportion to the population size. This gave a target sample of approximately 2,300 completed interviews for urban areas exclusive of Yerevan and 2,700 completed interviews for the rural sector. Interviews were completed with 6,430 women. Men age 15-54 were interviewed in every third household; this yielded 1,719 completed interviews.
A two-stage sample was used. In the first stage, 260 areas or primary sampling units (PSUs) were selected with probability proportional to population size (PPS) by systematic selection from a list of areas. The list of areas was the 1996 Data Base of Addresses and Households constructed by the National Statistical Service. Because most selected areas were too large to be directly listed, a separate segmentation operation was conducted prior to household listing. Large selected areas were divided into segments of which two segments were included in the sample. A complete listing of households was then carried out in selected segments as well as selected areas that were not segmented.
The listing of households served as the sampling frame for the selection of households in the second stage of sampling. Within each area, households were selected systematically so as to yield an average of 25 completed interviews with eligible women per area. All women 15-49 who stayed in the sampled households on the night before the interview were eligible for the survey. In each segment, a subsample of one-third of all households was selected for the men's component of the survey. In these households, all men 15-54 who stayed in the household on the previous night were eligible for the survey.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 6,524 households were selected for the sample, of which 6,150 were occupied at the time of fieldwork. The main reason for the difference is that some of the dwelling units that were occupied during the household listing operation were either vacant or the household was away for an extended period at the time of interviewing. Of the occupied households, 97 percent were successfully interviewed.
In these households, 6,685 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview (i.e., age 15-49). Interviews were completed with 96 percent of them. Of the 1,913 eligible men identified, 90 percent were successfully interviewed. The principal reason for non-response among eligible women and men was the failure to find them at home despite repeated visits to the household. The refusal rate was low.
The overall response rates, the product of the household and the individual response rates, were 94 percent for women and 87 percent for men.
Note: See summarized response rates by residence (urban/rural) in Table 1.1 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Thirteen interviewing teams were involved in data collection; each team consisted of four female interviewers, a male interviewer, a health technician, a field editor, and a team supervisor. The health technicians received special training in anthropometric measurement and anemia testing and were responsible for the collection of data on height and weight and anemia levels.
Training of the survey field staff occurred during a three-week period in September 2000. Training for all field staff, except the health technicians, was conducted by the National Statistical Service. Training for the health technicians was conducted by the Ministry of Health. Training consisted of lectures, practice in the classroom, and two days of practice in the field. Field practice was conducted on a team basis with interviewers and health technicians working in the same households.
The main fieldwork began in early October and was completed by early December. All callbacks and reinterviews were completed in early January 2001. Two special quality control teams, consisting of a female interviewer, a male interviewer, and a health technician, visited the teams in the field to check on the quality of the fieldwork.
Three questionnaires were used in the ADHS: a Household Questionnaire, a Women’s Questionnaire, and a Men’s Questionnaire. The questionnaires were based on the model survey instruments developed for the MEASURE DHS+ program. The model questionnaires were adapted for use during a series of expert meetings hosted by the Center of Perinatology, Obstetrics, and Gynecology. The questionnaires were developed in English and translated into Armenian and Russian. The questionnaires were pretested in July 2000.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all usual members of and visitors to a household and to collect information on the physical characteristics of the dwelling unit. The first part of the household questionnaire collected information on the age, sex, residence, educational attainment, and relationship to the household head of each household member or visitor. This information provided basic demographic data for Armenian households. It also was used to identify the women and men who were eligible for the individual interview (i.e., women 15-49 and men 15-54). The second part of the Household Questionnaire consisted of questions on housing characteristics (e.g., the flooring material, the source of water, and the type of toilet facilities) and on ownership of a variety of consumer goods.
The Women’s Questionnaire obtained information on the following topics:
- Background characteristics
- Pregnancy history
- Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
- Knowledge and use of contraception
- Attitudes toward contraception and abortion
- Reproductive and adult health
- Vaccinations, birth registration, and health of children under age five
- Episodes of diarrhea and respiratory illness of children under age five
- Breastfeeding and weaning practices
- Height and weight of women and children under age five
- Hemoglobin measurement of women and children under age five
- Marriage and recent sexual activity
- Fertility preferences
- Knowledge of and attitude toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections.
The Men’s Questionnaire focused on the following topics:
- Background characteristics
- Marriage and recent sexual activity
- Attitudes toward and use of condoms
- Knowledge of and attitude toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections.
After a team had completed interviewing in a cluster, questionnaires were returned promptly to the National Statistical Service in Yerevan for data processing. The office editing staff first checked that questionnaires for all selected households and eligible respondents had been received from the field staff. In addition, a few questions that had not been precoded (e.g., occupation) were coded at this time. Using the ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis) software, a specially trained team of data processing staff entered the questionnaires and edited the resulting data set on microcomputers. The process of office editing and data processing was initiated soon after the beginning of fieldwork and was completed by the end of January 2001.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2000 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (ADHS) to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the ADHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the ADHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the ADHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module. This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar year since birth
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the survey report.
Data and Data Related Resources
MEASURE DHS believes that widespread access to survey data by responsible researchers has enormous advantages for the countries concerned and the international community in general. Therefore, MEASURE DHS policy is to release survey data to researchers after the main survey report is published, generally within 12 months after the end of fieldwork. with few limitations these data have been made available for wide use.
DISTRIBUTION OF DATASETS
MEASURE DHS is authorized to distribute, at no cost, unrestricted survey data files for legitimate academic research, with the condition that we receive a description of any research project that will be using the data.
Registration is required for access to data.
Datasets are available for download to all registered users, free of charge. To download datasets, you must first register online and request the country(ies) and datasets that you are interested in. When submitting a dataset request, users must include a brief description of how the data will be used.
Datasets are made available with the following conditions:
- Survey data files are distributed by MEASURE DHS for academic research/statistical analysis. Researchers need to provide a description of any research/analysis that will be using the data, before access is granted to the datasets.
- Once downloaded, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of MEASURE DHS.
- All reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to the MEASURE DHS Data Archive as a Portable Format Document (pdf) or a hard copy, for us to forward to the country(ies) whose data have been used.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Armenia National Statistical Service, Ministry of Health [Armenia], and ORC Macro. Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2000. Ref. ARM_2000_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.