The 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is the seventh survey conducted in Indonesia under the auspices of the DHS program. Previous IDHS surveys are as follows: the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the 1991 IDHS, the 1994 IDHS, the 1997 IDHS, the 2002-03 IDHS, and the 2007 IDHS. Since 2002-03, the survey has expanded to include a survey of currently married men age 15-54 and never-married women and men age 15-24, referred to as adolescents. A departure from past DHS surveys in Indonesia, which covered ever-married women age 15-49, the 2012 IDHS included never-married women age 15-49. In addition to women age 15-49, the 2012 IDHS interviewed currently married men age 15-54 and never-married men age 15-24.
The 2012 IDHS was implemented by Statistics Indonesia (BPS) in collaboration with the National Population and Family Planning Board (NPFPB) and the Ministry of Health (MoH).
The primary objective of the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is to provide policymakers and program managers with national- and provincial-level data on representative samples of all women age 15-49 and currently-married men age 15-54.
The 2012 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
• Provide data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, adult mortality (including maternal mortality), and awareness of AIDS/STIs to program managers, policymakers, and researchers to help them evaluate and improve existing programs;
• Measure trends in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates, and analyze factors that affect such changes, such as marital status and patterns, residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and knowledge, use, and availability of contraception;
• Evaluate the achievement of goals previously set by national health programs, with special focus on maternal and child health;
• Assess married men’s knowledge of utilization of health services for their family’s health, as well as participation in the health care of their families;
• Participate in creating an international database that allows cross-country comparisons that can be used by the program managers, policymakers, and researchers in the areas of family planning, fertility, and health in general
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Women age 15-49
- Ever married men age 15-54
- Never married men age 15-24
Vitamin A Questions
Producers and sponsors
Statistics Indonesia (BPS)
Government of Indonesia
National Population and Family Planning Board
Government of Indonesia
Ministry of Health
Government of Indonesia
Government of Indonesia
Funding for the local costs of the survey
U.S. Agency for International Development
Provided fund for ICF International
Indonesia is divided into 33 provinces. Each province is subdivided into districts (regency in areas mostly rural and municipality in urban areas). Districts are subdivided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict is divided into villages. The entire village is classified as urban or rural.
The 2012 IDHS sample is aimed at providing reliable estimates of key characteristics for women age 15-49 and currently-married men age 15-54 in Indonesia as a whole, in urban and rural areas, and in each of the 33 provinces included in the survey. To achieve this objective, a total of 1,840 census blocks (CBs)-874 in urban areas and 966 in rural areas-were selected from the list of CBs in the selected primary sampling units formed during the 2010 population census.
Because the sample was designed to provide reliable indicators for each province, the number of CBs in each province was not allocated in proportion to the population of the province or its urban-rural classification. Therefore, a final weighing adjustment procedure was done to obtain estimates for all domains. A minimum of 43 CBs per province was imposed in the 2012 IDHS design.
Refer to Appendix B in the final report for details of sample design and implementation.
The response rates for both the household and individual interviews in the 2012 IDHS are high. A total of 46,024 households were selected in the sample, of which 44,302 were occupied. Of these households, 43,852 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent.
Refer to Table 1.2 in the final report for more detailed summarized results of the of the 2012 IDHS fieldwork for both the household and individual interviews, by urban-rural residence.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Prior to the start of the fieldwork, the questionnaires were pretested in Riau and East Nusa Tenggara provinces to make sure that the questions were clear and could be understood by the respondents. The pretest is important given the different sample coverage of women from ever-married women age 15-49 to all women age 15-49. In addition, there are new questions and changes in question format from those in the standard DHS questionnaires.
Two teams were recruited in each province. The pilot survey was conducted from mid-July to mid-August 2011 in four selected districts, representing four urban and four rural clusters. The areas selected for the pretest were Pekanbaru and Kampar districts (Riau province) and Kupang City and South Central Timor districts (East Nusa Tenggara province). Findings of the pretest were used to refine the questionnaires.
A total of 922 persons, 376 men and of 546 women, participated in the main survey training for interviewers. The training took place for 12 days in May 2012 in nine training centers: Batam, Bukit Tinggi, Banten, Yogyakarta, Denpasar, Banjarmasin, Makasar, Manokwari, and Jayapura. The training included class presentations, mock interviews, and tests. In each training center, the participants were grouped in three separate classes, one each for interviewers of women, married men, and never-married men respectively. All of the participants were trained using the household and individual questionnaires.
The 2012 IDHS employed 119 interviewing teams to collect the data. Each team was comprised of eight interviewers: one male supervisor, one female field editor, four female interviewers, and two male interviewers, one for currently married men and one for never-married men. In Papua and West Papua, each team consisted of five interviewers: one male supervisor, one female field editor, two female interviewers, and one male interviewer for married men and never-married men. Fieldwork took place from May 7 to July 31, 2012.
For more information about the fieldwork, see Appendix B of the final report.
Government of Indonesia
The 2012 IDHS used four questionnaires: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, the Currently Married Man’s Questionnaire, and the Never-Married Man’s Questionnaire. Because of the change in survey coverage from ever-married women age 15-49 in the 2007 IDHS to all women age 15-49 in the 2012 IDHS, the Woman’s Questionnaire now has questions for never-married women age 15-24. These questions were part of the 2007 Indonesia Young Adult Reproductive Survey questionnaire.
The Household and Woman’s Questionnaires are largely based on standard DHS phase VI questionnaires (March 2011 version). The model questionnaires were adapted for use in Indonesia. Not all questions in the DHS model were adopted in the IDHS. In addition, the response categories were modified to reflect the local situation.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors who spent the previous night in the selected households. Basic information collected on each person listed includes age, sex, education, marital status, education, and relationship to the head of the household. Information on characteristics of the housing unit, such as the source of drinking water, type of toilet facilities, construction materials used for the floor, roof, and outer walls of the house, and ownership of various durable goods were also recorded in the Household Questionnaire. These items reflect the household’s socioeconomic status and are used to calculate the household wealth index. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for an individual interview.
The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics:
• Background characteristics (marital status, education, media exposure, etc.)
• Reproductive history and fertility preferences
• Knowledge and use of family planning methods
• Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
• Breastfeeding and infant and young children feeding practices
• Childhood mortality
• Vaccinations and childhood illnesses
• Marriage and sexual activity
• Fertility preferences
• Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics
• Awareness and behavior regarding HIV-AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
• Sibling mortality, including maternal mortality
• Other health issues
Questions asked to never-married women age 15-24 addressed the following:
• Additional background characteristics
• Knowledge of the human reproduction system
• Attitudes toward marriage and children
• Role of family, school, the community, and exposure to mass media
• Use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs
• Dating and sexual activity
The Man’s Questionnaire was administered to all currently married men age 15-54 living in every third household in the 2012 IDHS sample. This questionnaire includes much of the same information included in the Woman’s Questionnaire, but is shorter because it did not contain questions on reproductive history or maternal and child health. Instead, men were asked about their knowledge of and participation in health-careseeking practices for their children.
The questionnaire for never-married men age 15-24 includes the same questions asked to nevermarried women age 15-24.
All completed questionnaires, along with the control forms, were returned to the BPS central office in Jakarta for data processing. The questionnaires were logged and edited, and all open-ended questions were coded. Responses were entered in the computer twice for verification, and they were corrected for computeridentified errors. Data processing activities were carried out by a team of 58 data entry operators, 42 data editors, 14 secondary data editors, and 14 data entry supervisors. A computer package program called Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro), which was specifically designed to process DHS-type survey data, was used in the processing of the 2012 IDHS.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (2012 IDHS) to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2012 IDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and identical size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling error is a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2012 IDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2012 IDHS is a SAS program. This program used the Taylor linearization method for variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Refer to Appendix C in the final report for details of estimates of sampling errors.
The following data quality tables are produced:
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank, Development Economics Data Group
DDI Document version
Version 01 (September 2013). Metadata is excerpted from "Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012" Report.