The principal objective of the VNLSS is to collect basic data reflescting the actual living standard of the population. These data then be used for evaluating socio-economic development and formulationg policies to improve living standard. Followings are the main goals by the year of 2000.
- Reduce the population growth rate less than 2 % peryear
- Reduce the infant mortaility (under 5 years old) 0,81% (1990) to 0,55%; and from 0,46% (1990) to 0,3% (under one year old)
- Reduce the mortality rate of women concerning the pregnancy and maternity
- Reduce the malnutrition of children under 5years old from 51,5% at present to 40% in 1995 and under 30% by the year of 2000. Heavy malnutrition should not be existed by the year of 2000.
- Population can access to safe water resources from 43% (1990) to 82% of which 40% to 80% in rural areas. Population use sanitary latrine from 22% (1990) to 65% of which in rural areas from 15% to 60%
- 90 percent of children complete the endeavor universal first level education before the age of 15, and the rest should complete the third grade. By the year of 2000 no children at the age of 15 will be illiterate
- Improve the cultural, spiritual life of the children, to ensure that 30% of communes (by the year of 1995) and 50% of communes (by the year of 2000) have entertaining place for children
The main information collected by the survey includes:
- Household income and expenditures
- Health and education
- Employment and other productive and activities
- Demographic characteristics and migration
- Housing conditions
In addition, the information gatherd is intended to improve planning of economic and social policies in Vietnam and to assist in evaluating the impact of the policies. It should enable decision makers to:
- indentify target groups for government assistance
- Construct models of socio-economic development policies, both overall and on individuals groups
- Analyze the impact of decisions available and of the current economic situation on living condition of household
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
This is the version available in the LSMS - World Bank data archive.
The General Statistics Office of Vietnam has a different version of the dataset, with more complete variable-level metadata (see the GSO survey catalog at www.gso.gov.vn).
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
General Statistical Office (GSO)
State Planning Committee (SPC)
The World Bank
Swedish International Development Authority
United Nations Development Program
The sample covers 4800 households from all areas of Viet Nam. The sample design was self-weighted, which means that each household in Viet Nam had the same probability of being selected. The overall sampling frame was stratified into two groups urban and rural, with sampling was carried out separately in each group (strata). About 20% of Vietnamese households live in urban areas, so the sample stratification ensures that 20% of selected households also come from urban areas. Within urban and rural areas, two lists of all communes was drawn up (one of urban communes and another of rural ones), province by province, in "serpentine" order. 2 The selection of communes within each list was done to ensure that they were spread out evenly among all provinces in Viet Nam.
The VNLSS sample design is the following. Within each province in Viet Nam, rural areas can be broken down into districts, and districts in turn are divided into communes (Xa). Urban areas in all provinces consist of centers/towns, which are divided into quarters (Quai), and then divided further into communes (Phuong). The number of communes in all of Viet Nam, both urban and rural, is about 10,000, and the average population in each is about 6,500. As explained in Section 4, each survey team covers 32 households in 4 weeks, 16 households in one area, and 16 in another area. For convenience all 32 households (i.e. both sets of 16 household) were selected from the same commune. This implied that 150 communes needed to be randomly selected (32x150=4800), 30 in urban areas and 120 in urban areas. Within urban areas communes can be further divided into clusters (Cum), two of which were selected from which to draw two "workloads" of 16 households (16 from each of the two clusters). The same was done in rural areas, where each commune is divided into several villages (Thon). The average size of urban clusters and rural villages is somewhat less than 1000 households.
The VNLSS sample was drawn in three stages. Because the General Statistical Office in Hanoi knows the current population of each commune in Viet Nam (but not of each cluster or village within each commune), 150 communes were selected out of the 10,000 in all of Viet Nam with the probability of selection proportional to their population size. At the second stage, information was gathered from the 150 selected communes on the population of each cluster (in urban areas) or villages (in rural areas), and two clusters or villages were randomly drawn with probability proportional to their population size. Finally, the third stage involved random selection of 20 households (16 for the sample plus four "extras" to serve as replacements if some of the 16 "originals" could not be interviewed) within each cluster or village from a list of all households within each cluster or village. Note that the first stage of the sample is based on information from the 1989 Census, but the second and third stages use updated information available from the communes. The first and second stage samples were drawn in Hanoi, while the third stage was drawn in the field (see Section 4.3 below for more details).
The attached map shows the commune number and approximate location of the 150 communes selected in Viet Nam. Of the 150 communes chosen, one was in a very remote and inaccessible area near the Chinese border and was replaced by another not quite as inaccessible. The actual interview schedule went smoothly. In one instance (commune 68) one of the selected villages was replaced because when the survey team arrived in the village it discovered that most of the adults were away from the village and thus could not be interviewed. In each cluster or village interviews were completed for 16 households, thus the 4800 household target sample was fully achieved. About 3% of the households (155) were replaced; the main reason for replacement was that their occupants were not at home. Only four households refused to participate. Community questionnaires were completed for all 120 rural communes. Price questionnaires were completed for 118 of 120 communes (the exceptions were communes 62 and 63), and comparable price data were collected from existing sources for all 30 urban areas.
Sample weight weren't used in the Vietnam living standard survey 1992 - 1993
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The household questionnaire contains modules (sections) to collect data on household demographic structure, education, health, employment, migration, housing conditions, fertility, agricultural activities, household non-agricultural businesses, food expenditures, non-food expenditures, remittances and other income sources, savings and loans, and anthropometric (height and weight) measures.
For some sections (survey information, housing, and respondents for second round) the individual designated by the household members as the household head provided responses. For some others (agro-pastoral activities, non-farm self employment, food expenditures, non-food expenditures) a member identified as most knowledgeable provided responses. Identification codes for respondents of different sections indicate who provided the information. In sections where the information collected pertains to individuals (education, health, employment, migration, and fertility) each member of the household was asked to respond for himself or herself, except that parents were allowed to respond for younger children. In the case of the employment and fertility sections it is possible that the information was not provided by the relevant person; variables in these sections indicate when this is the case. The household questionnaire was completed in two interviews two weeks apart: Sections 0-8, were conducted in the first interview, sections 9-14 were conducted in the second interview, and section 15 was administered in both interviews. The survey was designed so that more sensitive issues such as credit and savings were discussed near the end. The content of each module is briefly described below.
I. FIRST INTERVIEW
Section 0 SURVEY INFORMATION
0A HOUSEHOLD HEAD AND RESPONDENT INFORMATION
0B SUMMARY OF SURVEY RESULTS
0C OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS
The date of the interview, the religion, ethnic group of the household head, the language used by the respondent and other technical information related to the interview are noted. Section 0B summarizes the results of the survey visits, i.e. whether a section was completed on the first visit or the second visit. Section 0C, not entered into the computer, contains remarks of the interviewer and the supervisor. Since the data in Section 0C are retained only on the questionnaires, researchers cannot gain access to them without checking the original questionnaires at the General Statistical Office in Hanoi.
Section 1 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERSHIP
1A HOUSEHOLD ROSTER
1B INFORMATION ON PARENTS OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS
1C CHILDREN RESIDING ELSEWHERE
The roster in Section 1A lists the age, sex, marital status and relation to household head of all people who spent the previous night in that household and for household members who are temporarily away from home. The household head is listed first and receives the personal id code 1. Household members were defined to include "all the people who normally live and eat their meals together in this dwelling. Those who were absent more than nine of the last twelve months were excluded, except for the head of the household and infants less than three months old. A lunar calendar is provided in the questionnaire to help respondents recall the year and month they were born. For individuals who are married and whose spouse resides in the household, the personal id number of the spouse is noted. This way information on the spouse can be collected by appropriately merging information from the roster and other parts of the survey.
Section 1B collects information on the parents of all household members. For individuals whose parents reside in the household, parents’ personal id numbers are noted, and information can be obtained by appropriately merging information from other parts of the survey. For individuals whose parents do not reside in the household, information is recorded on whether each parent is alive, as well as their schooling and occupation. In section 1C information is collected for children of household members living elsewhere. This information is only collected for children below 30 years of age. Children who have died are not included. All living children are listed along with the personal id number of their father and mother (if parents reside in the household). Then information on the age, schooling, and current place of residence of each such child is recorded.
Section 2 SCHOOLING
In Section 2, data were collected on self-reported literacy and numeracy, school attendance, completion, and current enrollment for all household members of creche or preschool age and older. The interpretation of creche or pre-school age appears to have varied, with the result that while education information is available for some children of pre-school age, not all pre-school children were included in this section. But for ages 6 and above information is available for nearly all individuals, so in essence the data on schooling can be said to apply to all persons 6 age and above. For those who were enrolled in school at the time of the survey, information was also collected on school attendance, distance, travel time, expenses, and scholarships.
Section 3 HEALTH
In this section, data on any illness or injury experienced in the 4 weeks preceding the date of interview were obtained for all household members. For those who reported being ill in the past 4 weeks, information was obtained on the duration and type of illness, type of care sought, distance to health provider, travel time, and cost of medication and consultation. All individuals, whether ill or not in the past 4 weeks, were asked if they had been ill in the year before the survey, and if so the total amount they had spent on health care in the previous year. At the request of the World Health Organization, several questions on smoking were asked of all individuals 6 years of age and older.
Section 4 EMPLOYMENT
4A TYPE OF WORK AND JOB SEARCH
4B MAIN JOB DURING THE PAST SEVEN DAYS
4C SECONDARY JOB DURING THE PAST SEVEN DAYS
4D SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT
4E MAIN JOB DURING THE PAST TWELVE MONTHS
4F EMPLOYMENT HISTORY
4G SECONDARY JOB DURING THE PAST TWELVE MONTHS
4H OTHER ACTIVITIES
All individuals age six and older were asked to respond to the economic activity questions in Section 4, beginning with questions on the nature of their work in the last seven days. For persons who did not work in last seven days, data were collected on job search, and reason for not seeking employment. For work in last seven days, information was collected on hours, length of employment, type of employer, taxes, distance and travel time to place of work, money and in-kind compensation, and benefits. Similar questions were asked on the secondary job in the last seven days. Questions were asked on search for additional employment, including the kind of work sought and the lowest acceptable wage. If main work in the last twelve months was different from the main or secondary job in the last seven days, the complete set of questions was answered for that work as well. Type of work and years of experience at any work prior to that of the main job in the last twelve months were collected. Again, if there was a secondary job in the last twelve months different from the other jobs, data on work conditions and compensation were collected. Days and hours spent doing household chores were collected for each household member age seven and older.
Occupation and sector of employment codes are not available in the household questionnaire. It is not possible to determine the specific occupation these stand for, but based on the ordering of the codes it is possible to determine the broad classification they fall under (for example, construction, transport, storage, communication, etc.). These can, therefore, be treated as "other occupations" within the broad classification. Finally, the last 4 codes in Appendix F of the Basic Information document, namely, X, X-1, X-2, and X-3, appear as 0, -1, -2, and -3 in the data. The Xs were dropped from these codes so that the variable could be stored as a numeric variable.
Section 5 MIGRATION
All household members age 15 or older responded to the questions on migration in Section 5. If not born at current place of residence, respondents were asked whether the place of birth was a village, town, city, or other. The age at which such individuals left their place of birth was recorded, as well as the main reason for leaving. In addition, individuals were asked the main reason for coming to the current place of residence, from what region they had come to the current place, and whether the previous place was a village, town or city. Finally, respondents were asked how many places they had lived for periods of more than three months in their life?
Section 6 HOUSING
6A TYPE OF DWELLING
6B HOUSING EXPENSES
6C HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS
Section 6 contains information on the type of dwelling, housing expenses, and housing characteristics for all households interviewed. Information was collected on the number of rooms in the dwelling, ownership status, wall material, roof material, water source, toilet type, utilities expenses, and square meters of living area. Respondents for all 4800 households, regardless of whether the dwelling was owned or rented, were asked for the resale value of the dwelling. This section also contains information on type of cooking fuel used, the time and distance involved in collecting wood, and whether it is the primary cooking fuel used by the household.
Section 7 RESPONDENTS CHOSEN FOR ROUND TWO (the second interview)
In Section 7, the principal respondent for Round One was asked to identify: 1) the household member who knows the most about all the agricultural and livestock activities of the household; 2) the household member who shops for food; and 3) the household member who knows the most about the other household expenses, income and savings of household members. The respondent was also asked to identify the three most important businesses and trades belonging to the household, and the household members who know most about them. Finally, a woman was selected at random from among the women in the household between the ages of 15 and 49 to respond to the fertility module. In principle, those identified in this section for interviewing in later sections should be the ones who are actually interviewed in those sections. While this is true for many households there are some cases where the respondents for the agriculture, food expense, and non-food expense sections are different from those identified in this section. This is possible if the person identified was not present at the time the section was completed (e.g. the second visit to the household).
Section 8 FERTILITY
8A FERTILITY HISTORY
8B FAMILY PLANNING
In each household one woman 15-49 years old, randomly selected in Section 7, responded to the questions in Section 8. If a household contained no woman in this age range, Section 8 was not completed. The woman was asked if she had ever been pregnant and, if so, whether she had ever given birth. Women who respond that they have are asked the birth date and sex of all children they have given birth to, including children who did not survive. If the child is not alive the woman is asked how long it survived. The woman is asked about the birth and breastfeeding of her last child, the age at which she was married, and the number of miscarriages she has had. Section 8B gathers information on knowledge, use, source and cost of six modern and six traditional methods of family planning. In using data from this section it should be kept in mind that unlike the Demographic and Health Surveys and the World Fertility Surveys, interviewers were not necessarily women.
II. SECOND INTERVIEW
Section 9 AGRO-PASTORAL ACTIVITIES
9A1 AGRICULTURAL LAND
9A2 FOREST LAND
9A3 SELLING OR BUYING LAND
9A4 VACANT LOT, BALD HILL, LAND CLEARING RECLAMATION
9A5 AGRICULTURAL TAXES
9B2 OTHER FOOD CROPS
9B3 ANNUAL INDUSTRIAL CROPS
9B4 PERENNIAL INDUSTRIAL CROPS
9B5 FRUIT CROPS
9B6 FOREST TREES
9C CROP BYPRODUCTS
9D FARM INPUTS
9E TRANSFORMATION OF HOMEGROWN CROPS
9G OTHER ANIMAL PRODUCTS
9H RAISING/PLANTING WATER PRODUCTS
9I EXTENSION CONTACTS FOR LIVESTOCK
9J LIVESTOCK EXPENDITURES
9K HAND TOOLS
9L FARMING EQUIPMENT
In Section 9 the respondent was the household member identified in Section 7 as the one most knowledgeable about the household’s agricultural and pastoral activities. Most questions refer to the past twelve months. This section is by far the largest section of the household questionnaire, with many subsections that contain information on different aspects of agricultural production and related livestock activities -- collectively referred to as agro-pastoral activities.
Sections 9A1 to 9A5 collect information on household’s control over land of different tenures. These include land allocated by the commune, auctioned land, privately held land, rented/sharecropped land, and swidden land. In each case data are obtained on total land size, size of irrigated land, and payments for use of land. For annual crop land information is also obtained on quality of land. Similar information is obtained on water surface cultivated, forest land controlled, land reclaimed from a bald hill, newly ploughed land, and roadside/riverside land. In these sections data are also obtained on purchases and sales of land, and land taxes paid by the household.
Section 9B1 to 9B6 contain detailed output information for all crops grown by the household. This information is obtained separately for each crop and includes (in most cases) information on quantity produced, value of output, quantity sold in the market and given to the cooperative, quantity kept for seeds, quantity fed to livestock, and quantity given as gifts. In the case of paddy information is obtained, separately, for the summer crop, winter crop, and the autumn crop. It should be remembered that while data is obtained for each crop cultivated by a household, it is not possible to link the information on land tenure (and size) with output information to determine the tenure structure of land on which a certain crop is cultivated -- unless a household cultivates only one crop on the land it cultivates. Section 9C contains information on crop byproducts.
Section 9D obtains detailed information on seeds, manure, fertilizer, insecticides, and transportation for all crops cultivated by a household. This information is also crop-specific and can, theoretically, be linked with the output information in the earlier sections by matching the datasets by household codes and crop codes. Information on other inputs such as hired labor, packing and storage costs, etc., are obtained at an aggregated level for each household. Other crop-specific information obtained in this section consists of data on home consumption and on the use of agricultural extension services.
Section 9E contains information on transformation of home grown crops that were subsequently sold. This includes data on output for sale, codes of household members who participated in the production process, number of sales, revenues from these sales, and costs of production. Section 9F collects information on livestock, poultry, and other animals that are either consumed by a household or generate income. These data include an inventory of current numbers possessed, the numbers born, sold, consumed, given away or lost, and the numbers bought by a household. Also included is information on the value of current stocks, revenue from sales, and purchase costs. Section 9G then collects information on animal products such as milk, eggs, silk, manure, etc. Here information is restricted to revenue from sales. In section 9H similar information is collected for water animals (fish, shrimp, etc.).
Section 9I collects information on extension services for livestock, and section 9J contains information on livestock expenditures. Finally, section 9L and 9K collect data on implements and farm machinery owned by the household.
Section 10 NON-FARM SELF-EMPLOYMENT
10A WORKING CONDITIONS
10D BUSINESS ASSETS
Section 10 gathers data on household businesses for the three most important enterprises operated by the household. The respondent for each enterprise is the household member most familiar with its operation (as identified in Section 7). Data are gathered on the ownership, number of employees, and type of employee compensation for each enterprise. For each business, expenditures over the last twelve months on wages, raw materials, and taxes are collected. The respondent is asked how much, in money and goods, was received from sales and how much of the enterprise’s product was consumed by the household since the first interview. Information on ownership, sales and purchases of assets -- buildings, land, vehicles, tools and other durable goods -- in the last twelve months is also collected.
Section 11 FOOD EXPENSES AND HOME PRODUCTION
11A HOLIDAY EXPENSES
11B NORMAL EXPENSES
In Section 11A the amounts spent on holidays, primarily Tet (New Year), 15th January, 15th July, Moon festival, and Independence day. The range of food items for which such expense information is obtained is smaller than that for which information is obtained in the Section 11B. The main reason for separating holiday expenses from normal expenses, a departure from the standard LSMS survey format, is to take into account the fact that the Tet holiday in Viet Nam often represents significant departures from normal spending patterns -- particularly unusually high expenditures.
Section 11B collects detailed information on market purchases and consumption from home production for forty-five food items. Information is obtained for expenses since the interviewer’s first visit. For a longer recall period (12 months) data are obtained on the number of months (in the preceding 12 months) each food item was purchased, the number of times purchases were made during those months, the quantity purchased each time, and the value per purchase. These four pieces of information can be combined to obtain the total expenditure on food in the 12 months before the date of the interview. Note that this, in effect, is a variablerecall procedure because the time frame for which purchase information is provided by a respondent can differ for two food items, as well as across respondents. Besides market purchases (including barter), information is also collected on consumption from home production. Again data are obtained on the number of months each item was consumed but, unlike market purchases, the information of the quantity and value of consumption is obtained by asking a single question on the total amount for the past 12 months (as opposed to asking how often purchased each month, quantity purchased each time, etc.).
Section 12 NON-FOOD EXPENDITURES & INVENTORY OF DURABLE GOODS
12A DAILY EXPENSES
12B ANNUAL EXPENSES
12C INVENTORY OF DURABLE GOODS
12D EXPENSES FOR REMITTANCES
Section 12 collects information on non-food household expenditures from the household member identified in Section 7 as the one most able to answer non-food expenditure questions. In section 12A respondents were asked to recall the amount spent since the first interview (approximately two weeks) on daily expenses such as lottery tickets, cigarettes, soap, personal care products, cooking fuel, matches and candles, and gasoline. In section 12B expenditure data, both in the last two weeks and the last twelve months, were collected for shoes, cloth, clothing, home repairs, public transport, paper supplies, kitchen equipment, medical services, domestic servants, jewelry, entertainment and other goods (see household questionnaire). Purchase price, year of purchase, and resale value of durable goods owned were collected in Section 12C. [ Earlier versions of the data contained two variables instead of a single one for question number 3. This was the form in which data were received from Hanoi. The reason purchase price information was coded in two variables was because there was a devaluation in 1986, and so purchase price information from years before 1986, if coded in thousands of dongs, would appear very small. Data were therefore presented in two variables with the first one representing thousands of dongs, and the second one representing amounts less than a thousand dongs. These variables have now been combined so that the most recent version of the data contain a single variable for purchase price in thousands of dongs.]
Relation and location of the recipients of remittances sent out from the household are noted in Section 12D (remittances received by the household are recorded in Section 13A).
Section 13 OTHER INCOME
13A INCOME FROM REMITTANCES
13B MISCELLANEOUS INCOME
Section 13 collects data on money and goods that come into the household as remittances or from other sources unrelated to employment, such as employee welfare funds, dowries, sale of consumer durables, rental of buildings, etc.
Section 14 CREDIT AND SAVING
14A MONEY AND GOODS LENT AND BORROWED
14B LOANS CONTRACTED
Section 14 collects information on the amount of indebtedness of household members to people or institutions outside the household. If money or goods have been borrowed, or borrowed and repaid by any household member in the last twelve months, information is collected on those loans, including the source and amount of the loan, interest, side payments, collateral, repayment schedule, reason for borrowing, and number of loans from the same source. The household is asked to list different types of savings, if any, including bank deposits, bonds, cash (dong), US dollars, gold and value of paddy. The respondent is also asked the total value of all savings accounts.
Section 15 ANTHROPOMETRICS
Anthropometric measurements are completed for each household member. Data were collected on the household member’s age, gender, date of measurement, weight, height, and arm circumference. It was also noted if female respondents were pregnant or breastfeeding. If a person was not measured the reason why is noted.
A Community questionnaire was administered by the team supervisor and completed with the help of village chiefs, teachers, government officials and health care workers. The questionnaire was administered only in rural areas, i.e. commune numbers 1 to 120.
Section 1 (DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION) includes the population of the community, a list of principal ethnic groups and religions, the length of time the community has existed and whether or not it has grown. Section 2 (ECONOMY AND NFRASTRUCTURE) questions include a list of principal economic activities, access to a motorable road, electricity, pipe-borne water, restaurant or food stall, post office, bank, daily market and public transport. There are also questions on employment, migration for jobs, and the existence of community development projects. Section 3 (EDUCATION) asks distance to primary and middle schools. For up to three primary schools, the nearest middle school and the nearest secondary school, information is obtained on whether it is public or private, whether it is for boys or girls, or both, how many classes there are, and when it was built. Enrollment rates and reasons why children do not attend school are also collected. Section 4 (HEALTH) collects data on distance and travel time to the nearest of each of several types of health workers (doctor, nurse, pharmacist, midwife, family planning worker, community health worker, traditional birth attendant and traditional healer) and each type of several types of health facilities (hospital, dispensary, pharmacy, maternity home, health post and family planning clinic). The questions in Section 5 (AGRICULTURE) include the type of crops grown in the community, how often and when they are planted and harvested, and how the harvest is generally sold. This section also includes questions on the availability of an extension center, agricultural cooperatives, and machinery, and
questions on the use of pesticides and irrigation. Data are also gathered on the local land market and agricultural and non-agricultural wages in the community.
In rural areas (commune numbers 1 to 120), price data were collected by the team supervisor for 36 food items, 31 nonfood items, 9 medicines, 7 insecticides/fertilizers, and 5 types of services from local markets. Three separate observations were made and these did not necessarily involve actual purchases. In some communes fewer than 3 observations were made, either because of a lack of three distinct markets, or for some other reason. A separate set of prices are available for urban areas (commune numbers 121 to 150). These were collected by the General Statistical Office as part of a separate effort to construct price indices in Viet Nam, and their values appear to be comparable to those of the rural prices.
The Viet Nam Living Standards Survey format calls for two rounds of interviews and data entry in the field itself. The purpose of this format is to minimize response and data entry errors, and offer the possibility of rechecking information with households. Achieving these objectives requires continuous monitoring on the part of the supervisors of each survey team. The quality of interviewing and supervision varied from one survey team to another, but on the whole the survey effort was very good.
The procedure that the supervisors are supposed to follow is the following. Data collected in the first round is checked by the supervisor prior to the second round and necessary clarifications sought from the concerned household during the second round. Since the bulk of expenditure data are collected in the second round this particular checking is not possible for expenditure information. But since data are entered in the field office itself, the supervisor can check data from the second round, after the interview, and, in theory, check with households for which there are questionable data.
All responses obtained from individual, household, and community interviews were recorded in questionnaires. These were then entered into the computer, in the field, using data entry programs written in BASIC. The data produced by the data entry program are in the form of household files, i.e. one data file for all of the data in one household/community questionnaire. In the case of the household survey, this means 4800 data files, and in the case of community and price surveys this means 120 files each. These are the files that were produced in the field and then sent to the State Planning Committee in Hanoi.
At the State Planning Committee offices in Hanoi, these data files were processed to produce Stata datasets, each of which contained information for all households for a subset of variables. The subset of variables chosen corresponded to data entry screens, so these files are hereafter referred to as "screen files". [The data entry program had the capacity to produce these "screen-level" files but due to some miscommunication the staff at the State Planning Committee were unaware of this. For this reason, a separate "data conversion" program was written in QBASIC, by the State Planning Committee staff under World Bank staff supervision. The essential elements of this program involve reading household data files one by one, and writing out the data from these files to 116 files (one for each data entry screen) based on the data entry code. This way data for each data entry screen for all households is stacked (concatenated), and a "screen file" is created.]
For the household survey component 116 data files were created, for the community survey component 23 data files were created, and for the price survey 6 data files were created. Members of the survey team were trained by World Bank staff in the use of database management software (Paradox) and statistical software (Stata) to check, correct, and analyze survey data. The survey team then spent approximately 3 months checking and correcting data by checking the questionnaires for original recorded information.
We would like to emphasize that correction here refers to checking questionnaires, in case of errors in skip patterns, incorrect values, or outlying values, and changing values if and only if data in the computer were different from those in the questionnaires. The personnel in charge of data preparation were given specific instructions not to change data even if values in the questionnaires were clearly incorrect. We have no reason to believe that these instructions were not followed, and every reason to believe that the data resulting from these checks and corrections are accurate and of the highest quality possible.
The screen files were then brought to World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C. and uploaded to a mainframe computer, where they were converted to "standard" LSMS format by merging datasets to produce separate datasets for each section with variable names (and labels) used in past LSMS datasets. In some cases this has meant a single dataset for a section, while in others it has meant retaining "screen" datasets with just the variable names changed. For example, there were 3 "screen files" corresponding to section 2 (education) but the final LSMS dataset, SECT02, is a single dataset which was created by merging the 3 screen files by household and individual identification codes. On the other hand, SECT09B1, the dataset that contains output information on paddy is simply the screen file for data entry screen 56, but with variable names and labels different from the original screen file. One specific issue that arose during the process of data collection was that in the early stages of the survey, it was observed that expenditures on some items were larger than what could be accommodated with the data entry program in use at that point. This was particularly the case in the southern part of the country. To accommodate these larger expenditures, the data entry program was modified to increase the number of digits available for recording values.
Initially, this created some problems with the data entry program, and data that had been entered using earlier versions of the program. But these were resolved by the survey team and have had no effect on the quality of expenditure data. Other than this particular issue there does not appear to be any widespread problems with the data. The data have been used by the State Planning Committee and the General Statistical Office to produce a statistical abstract and a set of papers on health, education, employment, and agriculture, and no serious concerns about data quality have been expressed. Work done at the World Bank has not uncovered serious problems with the data.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
The 1992/93 and 1997/98 Viet Nam Living Standards Survey (VLSS), and 2002 and 2004 Viet Nam Household Living Standards Survey data are the property of the government of Vietnam. Permission to use the VLSS data must be obtained from the General Statistical Office in Hanoi, Vietnam. The request should be submitted to:
Mr. Nguyen The Quan
Department of Social and Environment Statistics
General Statistical Office
2, Hoang Van Thu Street
fax: 84-4-846-3511 or 84-4-846-4345
The request should include a brief (one page) explanation of the proposed research.
TENTATIVE FEES FOR USE OF THE DATA
Fee for one data set
A. For Vietnamese individuals and Vietnamese organizations
· Vietnamese organizations with domestic budget: $US200*
· Vietnamese organizations with financial support from foreign and international budget: $US400*
· Vietnamese individual with own pocket money: $US100
*In the case of institutions, the fee paid allows many people/projects belonging to the institutions to utilize the data.
B. For foreigners/ foreign or international organizations:
· Foreign or international organizations: $US2000*
· Individual foreigners using the data set for own research/study/lectures preparation:
· Citizens of a developing country: $US200
· Citizens of a developed country: $US500
*In the case of institutions, the fee paid allows many people/projects belonging to the institutions to utilize the data.
Fee for two data sets:
1.5 times higher than the fee for one data set
An additional $US20 fee is required for shipping the CD-ROM by airmail.
The procedure on getting the VLSS data sets is as follows:
Pay the fee for data set(s) to the following account with a bank transfer. DO NOT SEND PERSONAL CHECKS:
Account name: TONG CUC THONG KE
Account number: 001 1 37 008159 0
Bank name: BANK FOR FOREIGN TRADE OF VIET NAM
Bank address: 23 Phan Chu Trinh Street, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
Once the bank confirms that the payment for the fee is available in the account, a CD-ROM with data set(s) and related materials will be sent to you by airmail.
CONDITIONS OF USE
The user must respect the copyright of the data and should not allow other users to use the data without permission of the GSO. The user is requested to send to the GSO the results of use of the data at least one month before their publication.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Vietnam General Statistical Office. Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Ref. VNM_1992_VLSS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Social and Environmental Statistics Department
General Statistics Office
LSMS Data Manager
The World Bank
World Bank Microdata Library
World Bank, Development Economics Data Group
Production of metadata
Version 02 (December 2013). Edited version based on Version 11 (April 2011) DDI. Value labels for categorical variables are created.