WSP Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Access (TSSM) Impact Evaluation, Madhya Pradesh State, Baseline and Endline Surveys 2009-2011
In India, WSP's Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Program is supporting the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in two states: Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. TSC is an ambitious countrywide, scaled-up rural sanitation program launched in 1999, which seeks to attain an Open-Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2012. In contrast to earlier, hardware-centric supply approaches to rural sanitation, TSC aims to generate demand for and adoption of improved sanitation at the community level.
This impact evaluation aimed at better understanding what health and welfare impacts can be expected from rural sanitation improvements. Researchers hypothesized that promotion of rural sanitation through community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and social marketing campaigns will improve the health of the population especially children under five years old, a population that is vulnerable to unsafe disposal of feces in the environment and fecal-oral contamination.
This impact evaluation consisted of baseline and endline surveys. In collaboration with the government of Madhya Pradesh, two districts - Dhar and Khargone - were selected. In each district, 80 Gram Panchayats were chosen and randomized into two groups: 1) treatment group (to participate in Total Sanitation Campaign immediately following the baseline survey) and 2) control group (to receive TSC after follow-up data collection).
The baseline survey collected information from a representative sample of the population targeted by the intervention. This baseline survey was administered to approximately 2,000 households between June and July 2009. The survey provided information on the characteristics of household members, access to sanitation facilities, self-reported open defecation, prevalence of child diseases such as diarrhea and respiratory infection, and child growth and development.
The endline survey was carried out in February-March 2011. It followed the same households sampled in baseline, as well as additional children to increase statistical power.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Version 01 - edited, anonymized datasets for public distribution. The public version does not include addresses and telephone numbers, names of respondents, supervisors and coders.
The datasets include information from baseline and endline surveys.
The surveys covered Dhar and Khargone districts in Madhya Pradesh state.
Unit of analysis
- Child (under 5 and under 2)
Producers and sponsors
Water and Sanitation Program
Network for Engineering and Economics Research and Management
Implementation of the baseline survey
Data reduction endline
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Primary funding source for the impact evaluation
The selection of the sample in Madhya Pradesh was completed in several stages. First, at the design stage of the project, MP was selected a priori as one of two states to participate in the IE. Second, two districts in MP - Dhar and Khargone were selected by WSP in collaboration with the state government. Third, within each of these districts, a total of 80 Gram Panchayats (GP) were selected as candidates for Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) implementation. In the fourth stage, one village from each candidate GP was identified by the GP as a community that is suitable for implementing TSC yielding a list of 80 villages in each of the four districts. Within each district, 40 of the candidate GPs (and their appointed village) were randomly assigned to the treatment group, and the remaining 40 were assigned to the control group.
Approximately, 1,000 households were sampled in each district to achieve a total sample size of 2,000 households. The final selection of households to participate in the IE survey was carried out by the survey firm contracted to conduct the IE baseline data collection. A household listing of all participating villages was conducted and from this list, 25 households with children under two years old were randomly selected for participation. When 25 eligible households were not available in the listed village, a neighboring village was listed and sampled to achieve the desired number of households in the GP.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Household Questionnaire: The household questionnaire collected information about household membership and demographics, income, assets, dwelling characteristics, access to water and sanitation, sanitation- and hygiene-related behaviors, maternal depression, mortality, exposure to health interventions, and other outcomes. Enumerators also conducted standardized observations of dwellings and child cleanliness and of sanitation and handwashing facilities at the time of the HH interviews.
Health Questionnaire: The health questionnaire collected information about children’s diarrhea prevalence, acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), other health symptoms, and child development and growth. As part of this questionnaire, hemoglobin concentrations were measured in children younger than two years of age at the household level using the HemoCueTM Hb201 photometer, a portable device that allows for immediate and reliable quantitative results. Anthropometric (child growth) measures were made according to standardized protocols using portable stadiometers, scales, and measuring tape (Habicht 1974).
Community Questionnaire: The community questionnaire was administered at the GP-level to collect information about GP and district-level characteristics that could influence the intervention or the outcomes of interest (e.g., ongoing health and sanitation programs, connectivity to district headquarters, and other factors).
Water Samples: Water samples were collected from sources at the GP-level and at the household level for a subset of the households (n = X GP-level source samples; n = 354 HH samples). All of the water samples were analyzed by an accredited lab in Indore to determine presence of E. coli and other types of coliforms. The samples were collected within the household, inoculated using the Colilert reactive, and transported to a lab. At the lab, samples were incubated at 35 degrees Celsius for 24 hours, and results were read using an ultraviolet lamp. This procedure precluded sampling in areas where a cold chain could not be maintained.
Stool Samples: Stool samples were collected from children to examine the prevalence of parasites. These were collected from a subset of sampled households (n=216). The same lab in Indore analyzed these samples.
Baseline: The baseline survey was processed using the assistance of Sistemas Integrales in Chile.
Endline: Kimetrica International was contracted to design the data reduction system to be used during the endline. The data entry system was designed in CSPro (Version 4.1) using the DHS file management system as a standard for file management. Details of the system can be found in the attached manual entitled: Data Entry Manual for the Endline Survey.
The data entry system was based on a full double data entry (independent verification) of the various questionnaires. CSPro supports both dependent and independent verification (double keying) to ensure the accuracy of the data entry operation. Using independent verification, operators can key data into separate data files and use CSPro utilities to compare them and produce a report that indicates discrepancies in data entry.
The DHS system uses a fully integrated tracking system to follow the stages in the data entry process. This includes the checking in of questionnaires; the programming of logic in what is known as a system controlled environment. System controlled applications generally place more restrictions on the data entry operator. This is typically used for complex survey applications. The behavior of these applications at data entry time has the following characteristics:
- Some special data entry keys are not active during data entry.
- CSEntry will keep track of the path.
- 'Not applicable' or blanks values will not be allowed. Missing values have to be coded.
- More appropriate to the heads up methodology of data capture.
- Logic in the application is strictly enforced; operator cannot bypass or override.
Files were processed using the unique cluster number and then concatenated after a final stage of editing and output to both SPSS and STATA.
Furthermore, attempts were made to respect the values and the naming conventions as provided in the baseline. This required using non-conventional values for "missing" such as -99. In most cases the same value sets were applied or during the questionnaire review process the WSP was alerted to such discrepancies.
The data files as they are output in CSPro follow the hierarchical structure as established in the data dictionary. These however may not be convenient for the analyst. The WSP requested that the files be integrated into various record level files. The files that are included in the final data base reflect this structure.
However, some analysts may still want the hierarchical level data available in its original record form (as it was during data entry). For that reason, these files are also zipped together and provided in the event that they are desired.
The final data files are provided in Stata format as requested by the WSP.
Although there was no formal or independent appraisal of the data, an appraisal was undertaken when the data files for Peru, India and Vietnam were prepared for a WSP presentation in Mexico. These data were presented in a public forum and scrutinized by various analysts. There was a process of feeding back information which helped correct or format or revise the data.
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online)
Water and Sanitation Program, Network for Engineering and Economics Research and Management. WSP Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Access (TSSM) Impact Evaluation, Madhya Pradesh State, Baseline and Endline Surveys 2009-2011. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Compiled the DDI
Water and Sanitation Project
Reviewed content of the DDI
Development Data Group
Reviewed content of the DDI
Version 01: Adopted from "DDI-WSP-IND-IE2009-2011" DDI that was done by metadata producers mentioned in "Metadata Production" section.
Version 02 (July 2014): Some of the metadata fields were edited.