MICS 2011 is a nationally representative household sample survey of 12,150 households in 810 enumeration areas (EAs). The survey is expected to provide estimates of all key health indicators at the national and regional levels, as well as for urban and rural areas. It is hoped that the findings from MICS 2011 would provide up-to-date information on progress made towards targets set by the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II), the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other national and international programmes aimed at promoting the welfare of women and children. The results are also expected to help policy planners improve on access and quality of health-related services in the country.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v1.1: Edited data.
MICS 2011 had a module for Anaemia and Malaria Testing for Children Under Five. Children were tested for anaemia and malaria after seeking the consent of the parents. The malaria esting was done using the malaria rapid test. Those who tested positive for malaria were given malaria treatment while those whose results showed that they had severe anaemia or severe malaria were advised to seek treatment from a health facility.
There wa also a module on National Health Insurance to find out if households members had subscribed to the scheme and if not, why they were not holding a health insurance card to enable them access health facilities when ill.
DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION 
Unit of analysis
The survey covered 810 enumeration areas and 12,150 households across the country. In terms of eligibility, it covered the following households members:
1. All women age 15-49 years
2. All men age 15-49 years
3. All children under 5 years
4. All household members
Producers and sponsors
Ghana Statistical Service
Government of Ghana
Ministry of Health
United Nations Children's Fund
United States Agency for International Development
United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
The list of enumeration areas (EAs) from the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census (PHC) served as a frame for the MICS sample. The frame was first stratified into the 10 administrative regions in the country, then into urban and rural EAs.
Deviations from sample design
No deviation from the original sample design was made
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
Field supervisors, played a vital role in the survey field operations. They mediated between the Field Interviewers who collected the required information and the Survey Secretariat where the MICS 2011 was managed from. Supervisors worked with three (3) Field Interviewers, One (1) Field Editor and One (1) Health Technician (Malaria Biomarker). Supervisors were to oversee the work of interviewers and assist them with the identification of selected households and carry out any protocols needed to solicit the cooperation of respondents. Interviewers were to administer the questionnaires (Household, Women, Children under five and Men) to selected households assigned to them. Supervisors were also to assist interviewers with the estimation of the ages of respondents who could not readily recall their ages but who could recall some historical events to guide the estimation of their ages.
To ensure good quality data from the field, the editor was to review all completed questionnaires to ensure cosnsitency and completeness.
There were field monitoring/supervisory visits by personnel from the survey secretariat to verify the work of the teams in the field. This was also to ensure the collection of quality data.
Four main questionnaires were used for the MICS 2011 data collection:
1. Household information: Individual members, head of household, sex, age, marital status, relation to head of household, education, water and sanitation, working children, child discipline, disability and salt iodization
2. Children under 5 years: Breastfeeding, care of illness, malaria, immunization, anthropometry, anaemia and malaria testing
3. Women 15-49 years: Infant/child mortality, tetanus toxoid, maternal and newborn health, marriage/union, contraception, female genital mutilation, attitude towards domestic violence, sexual behavior, and HIV/AIDS
4. Men 15-49 years: Reproduction, marriage, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes toward domestic violence
Ghana Statistical Service
Government of Ghana
In the MICS survey, data editing occured at three levels:
1. Field editing by editors and supervisors - In all the clusters that data were collected, ediors and supervisors revisited households and collected information which was either left out, uncompleted or responses which were not clear. Thus, data were validated in the field
2. Office editing-The purpose of office editing which was carried out under the MICS survey was to ensure that field data collection had conformed to the laid-down principles and procedures. Necessary codes, names, values were provided
3. Data cleaning and imputation - This stage offered the data processing personnel the opportunity to run further checks that ensured consistency. In a situation where inconsistencies were huge, field monitors were sent back to the field for verification of data that had been collected and thereafter, the necessary corrections made
4. Individual data files were also checked for completeness and consistency.
Data from the questionnaires were captured using the CSPro software. The data were entered on 10 computers by 10 data entry operators and two data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and 4 secondary editors complemented the efforts of entry supervisors to perform internal consistency checks. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS Project and adapted to the Ghana questionnaire were used throughout the processing. Data processing began shortly after the commencement of fieldwork on 14th August, 2011 and lasted for three months.
Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF.
The data capture at GSS takes the following forms:
1. Manual data entry
Data editing of the captured data usually consisted of:
1. Verification or double entry
2. Consistency checks
3. Structure edits
4. Quality Control
Other forms of data appraisal
Using SPSS software, basic data consistency checks were made and the necessary gaps were filled.
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) requires all users to keep information and microdata strictly confidential. In this regard, before being granted access to microdatasets, all users have to formally agree to observe the following:
1. Not to make copies of any files or portions of files to which access has been granted vailable to other individuals/organizations except with the authorization of GSS
2. Not to willfully identify any individual or household or establishment in the microdataset
3. To hold in strictest confidence, the identity of any individual or household or establishment that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such unintended identification revealed should be immediately brought to the attention of GSS.
4. Microdata obtained from GSS are protected by copyright law and therefore not for re-distribution or sale
5. Prospective clients or data users may be required to submit and sign an affidavit of confidentiality of microdata they access
The Ghana Statistical Service as a public institution has the obligation to promote data dissemination to facilitate national development. Making mcrodata available will enable students and the academia to conduct research works, assist investors to take business decisions, help the individual to evaluate and take appropriate decisions. It will also assist the government to formulate appropriate policies and programmes to facilitate national development. GSS' policy framework provides access to data through:
1. Public use files. These categories of data sets are accessible by all without any payment. They are available on-line to all interested users, for research and statistical purposes only.
2. Licensed datasets. These categories of data sets are accessible under certain conditions. Thus, prospective clients/data users may access any data based on certain conditions set by the GSS
3. Datasets only accessible on location. We consider this category as a data enclave where some data sets are only accessible at GSS offices and prospective data users and researches have to physically go to the GSS offices for further discussions before data are released. Thus, data enclave would not be linked to the outside world through our web site or other medium.
The following terms and conditions apply:
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files for which access has been granted, except those authorized by GSS.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to identify any person, establishment, or sampling unit.
3. To hold in strictest confidence, the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the GSS.
4. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of GSS.
5. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only.
6. The data will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
7. No attempt will be made to identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the GSS.
8. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the GSS with other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
9. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the GSS would cite the source of data in accordance with the citation statement provided with the dataset
10. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the GSS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Ghana Statistical Service, United Nations Children's Fund. Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2011, Ref. GHA_2011_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/nada/index.php/catalog/52.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The original collector of the data, GSS and any producers or sponsors cited in this document bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Ghana Statistical Service
World Bank Microdata Library
Ghana Statiscal Service
Lead documenting institution
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Version 02 (October 2013). Edited version based on Version 1.1 (January 2013) DDI (DDI_GHA_2011_MICS_v1.1_M) that was done by Ghana Statistical Service and reviewed by Accelerated Data Program, International Household Survey Network.