Cambodia Enterprise Survey 2012 (also known as Investment Climate Survey 2012) was conducted by the World Bank Cambodia country office and Asian Development Bank between February 2012 and February 2013. The survey formed analytical background for the Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) prepared by the World Bank in partnership with the government of Cambodia. The assessment was completed in August 2014.
The objectives of the 2014 Cambodia ICA are to provide up-to-date and fact-based analysis of the business environment for development partners, policymakers in the government, private sector, civil society, and outline priorities for improving business environment and suggest possible policy options for achieving them.
Cambodia Enterprise Survey 2012 was not conducted under the supervision of World Bank's Enterprise Analysis Unit, as other Enterprise Surveys, and therefore small variations in methodology are present.
Data from 472 registered establishments was analyzed. Stratified random sampling was used to select the surveyed businesses. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews.
The topics covered include firm characteristics, access to finance, sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, and performance measures.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The primary sampling unit of the study is an establishment. An establishment is a physical location where business is carried out and where industrial operations take place or services are provided. A firm may be composed of one or more establishments. For example, a brewery may have several bottling plants and several establishments for distribution. For the purposes of this survey an establishment must make its own financial decisions and have its own financial statements separate from those of the firm. An establishment must also have its own management and control over its payroll.
The scope of the study includes:
- Capacity, technology, innovation and investment;
- Degree of competition;
- Infrastructure and services;
- Conflict resolution and legal environment;
- Business-government relations;
- Applications infrastructures and services;
- Sales, supplies and logistics;
- Interest in the stock market;
- Investment climate and constraints;
- Finance and administration;
- Labor relations.
Regions covered are selected based on the number of establishments, contribution to employment, and value added. In most cases these regions are metropolitan areas and reflect the largest centers of economic activity in a country.
The universe of the study, is manufacturing, trade, tourism, and selected services. In terms of the International Standard Industrial Classification (Rev. 4) the following groups are included: manufacturing (group C), construction (group F), wholesale and retail trade (group G), transportation and storage (group H), accommodation and food services activities (group I), travel agency, tour operator, reservation service and related activity (79) and computer programming, consultancy and related activities (62). Note that this definition excludes agriculture (group A), mining and quarrying (group B), energy and water supply (groups D and E), and all other services (groups J to U) except for IT (62) and travel agency, tour operator, reservation service and related activity (79) which were included in the population under study.
Producers and sponsors
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
Four levels of stratification were used in this country: sector, establishment size, location and formal status.
Sector stratification was designed in the following way: the universe was stratified into 5 sectors: (1) agroprocessing consisting of manufacture of food, beverages and tobacco, manufacture of wood and wood products and manufacture of rubber products (ISIC Rev. 4 codes 10-12 and 16), (2) manufacturing except agroprocessing (ISIC Rev. 4 group C except 10-12 and 16), (3) trade (ISIC Rev. 4 group G), (4) tourism (ISIC Rev. 4 group I and 79), and (5) other (ISIC Rev. 4 groups F and H and 62).
Size stratification was defined following the standardized definition for the rollout: small (5 to 19 employees), medium (20 to 99 employees), and large (more than 99 employees). For stratification purposes, the number of employees was defined on the basis of reported number of persons engaged daily in the last week as this was the only information available in the sampling frame.
Location stratification was defined in the five major urban economic centers: Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Kampong Cham, Sihanouk Ville, and Battambang.
Stratification by formal status is done by distinguishing between firms that have the required registration with the Ministry of Commerce (formal firms) and those that lack the registration (informal firms).
The Establishment Listing 2009 (EL 2009), which was conducted during February-March 2009 by the National Institute of Statistics and the Ministry of Planning of Cambodia, was used as the sampling frame. The EL 2009 aimed at compiling basic statistics on establishments and constructing a comprehensive list of establishments. The establishment list was later used as a frame for the 2011 Economic Census.
The sample of firms that were interviewed for Cambodia Enterprise Survey 2007 was also used in the survey.
In order to have a sufficient number of firms outside Phnom Penh in the sample, firms in Battambang, Siem Reap, Kampong Cham, Sihanouk Ville were oversampled proportionally in each stratum defined by sector, size, and formality, such that the total number of sampled firms from Battambang, Siem Reap, Kampong Cham, Sihanouk Ville was approximately 50% in each of the strata (less if not enough firms outside Phnom Penh are available).
Survey non-response was addressed by maximizing efforts to contact establishments that were initially selected for interview. Attempts were made to contact the establishment for interview at different times/days of the week before a replacement establishment (within the same stratum) was selected for interview. Survey non-response did occur but substitutions were made in order to potentially achieve strata-specific quota.
The number of contacted establishments per realized interview was 2.56. This number is the result of two factors: explicit refusals to participate in the survey, as reflected by the rate of rejection (which includes rejections of the screener and the main survey) as well as difficulties to locate firms and changes in sector activity. The number of refusals per contact actually made was 0.32.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The Enterprise Surveys are usually implemented following a two-stage procedure. In the first stage a screener questionnaire was applied over the phone to determine whether the firm was currently active, the sector of activity, and to make appointments. In the second stage, a face-to-face interview took place with the Manager/Owner/Director of each establishment using the full questionnaire.
Indochina Research Ltd.
The questionnaire included most questions from the traditional Enterprise Survey Core Module. But there were some differences.
First, the survey collected more detailed information on some elements of the investment climate, such as firm registration (question 113), interest in the stock market (questions 102-106), and assessment of different investment locations (questions 107-108).
Second, detailed questions on revenues from supplying products/services and trade and the costs of inputs were asked (questions 132-135). It was found that some firms had difficulty providing this information for the whole year, but they were able to provide this information for subperiods. Also given poor bookkeeping in a lot of Cambodia businesses, firms were asked for the revenues and raw material costs for their main three products and other (remaining) products rather than for the total revenues and raw materials directly.
Third, detailed questions were asked on investment in and replacement values of machinery and equipment (questions 138 and 140). Firms were asked to provide information on components rather than total values, as firms had otherwise even more difficulty answering this question.
Enterprise Analysis Unit
Free University of Amsterdam
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name);
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation;
- the survey reference number;
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
World Bank, Asian Development Bank. Cambodia Enterprise Survey (ES) 2012, Ref. KHM_2012_ES_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
v01 (February 2015)