The STEP project consists of Household Surveys collection and Employer Surveys collection.
These surveys are part of the STEP Household Surveys collection.
So far, two waves have been implemented in 12 countries. The third wave is under preparation.
The first wave started in September 2011 and was completed in December 2013. Wave 1 countries are: Bolivia, Colombia, Sri Lanka, Lao PDR, Vietnam, the Yunnan Province in China, Ghana, and Ukraine.
The STEP (Skills Toward Employment and Productivity) Measurement program is the first ever initiative to generate internationally comparable data on skills available in developing countries. The program implements standardized surveys to gather information on the supply and distribution of skills and the demand for skills in labor market of low-income countries.
The uniquely-designed Household Survey includes modules that measure the cognitive skills (reading, writing and numeracy), socio-emotional skills (personality, behavior and preferences) and job-specific skills (subset of transversal skills with direct job relevance) of a representative sample of adults aged 15 to 64 living in urban areas, whether they work or not. The cognitive skills module also incorporates a direct assessment of reading literacy based on the Survey of Adults Skills instruments. Modules also gather information about family, health and language.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The units of analysis are the individual respondents and households. A household roster is undertaken at the start of the survey and the individual respondent is randomly selected among all household members aged 15 to 64 included. The random selection process was designed by the STEP team and compliance with the procedure is carefully monitored during fieldwork.
Version 02, edited anonymous datasets for public distribution.
Version 01 was published in June 2014, but is now replaced with v02.
The difference between v02 and v01 datasets:
- Changes made to all STEP countries:
1) The literacy variables had incorrect labelling, which has now been fixed
2) The 'emp' variable has been cleaned
3) The 'write_dif' variable has been corrected
4) All monetary variables (identifiable by '_usd') have been converted to PPP dollars
The scope of the study includes:
- household demographic characteristics
- dwelling characteristics
- education and training
- job skill requirements
- personality, behavior and preferences
- language and family background
- reading literacy test assessment
- The STEP target population is the urban population aged 15 to 64 (inclusive).
Cities and core urban areas
The target population is defined as all non-institutionalized persons aged 15 to 64 (inclusive) living in private dwellings in the urban areas of the country at the time of the data collection. This includes all residents, except foreign diplomats and non-nationals working for international organizations
The following are considered "institutionalized" and excluded from the STEP survey:
- Residents of institutions (prisons, hospitals, etc)
- Residents of senior homes and hospices
- Residents of other group dwellings such as college dormitories, halfway homes, workers' quarters, etc
Other acceptable exclusions are:
- Persons living outside the country at the time of data collection, e.g., students at foreign universities
Deviation Requested from the Standard: The statistical population is composed of core urban households and excludes the categories identified here, as well as itinerants (as classified in the Population Census 2009 in Kenya).
Producers and sponsors
STEP Co-Task Team Leader, Education Global Practice
Maria Laura Sanchez Puerta
STEP Co-Task Team Leader, Social Protection and Labor Global Practice
World Bank Consultant Project Coordinator
Technical assistance in project management, data collection, data processing and data analysis
World Bank Consultant Senior Labor Economist
Technical assistance in project management, questionnaire design, and data analysis
World Bank Consultant Survey Consultant
Technical assistance in questionnaire design, sampling methodology, and data collection
Sebastian Monroy Taborda
World Bank Consultant Research Analyst
Technical assistance in data processing and data analysis
Multi-Donor Trust Fund Labor Markets, Job Creation and Economic Growth
Educational Testing Services
Designed the Reading Literacy Assessment Module and conducted the preliminary analysis of the reading literacy data, including generating plausible values for the Extended Assessment
The sample size was 3894 households. The Kenya sample design is a stratified 3 stage sample design. The sample was stratified by 4 geographic areas: 1-Nairobi, 2-Other Large Cities (over 100,000 households), 3- Medium cities (60,000 to 100,000 HHs), and 4-Other Urban Areas. For detailed description of the sample design and sampling methodologies, refer to Part 3 of the National Survey Design Planning Report (NSDPR) as well as the STEP Survey Weighting Procedures Summary. Both documents are provided as external resources.
Deviations from the Sample Design
War marred and unstable regions of Kenya were excluded from the survey. Itinerants (as classified in the Population Census 2009 in Kenya) were also excluded.
An overall response rate of 91.8% was achieved in the Kenya STEP Survey. Table 21 of the STEP Survey Weighting Procedures Summary provides the detailed percentage distribution by final status code.
The weighting was carried out by the STEP Survey Methodologist. The weighting process is outlined in section 3.7 of the STEP NSDPR for Kenya as well as the STEP Survey Weighting Procedures Summary. Both documents are provided as external resources.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The STEP Consortium provided the survey fiirm with a techical standards for field supervision and the STEP Consortium also monitored the fieldwork (see National Survey Design Planning Report (NSDPR) sections 5 and 6 for more details).
Data Collection Notes
In Kenya, each component of the STEP Survey was carried out by a personal visit using a Paper And Pencil Interview (PAPI) method.
The STEP program requires all surveys to be implemented in a standardized way:
(i) Each participating country (survey firm) wrote up a National Survey Design Planning Report (NSDPR) detailing how it intended to implement the STEP survey while complying with the STEP Technical Standards. The NSDPRs were submitted to the WB STEP team for approval.
(ii) The WB STEP team and Educational Testing Services (ETS) provided 2 workshops to all survey firms. The first was a 2-day workshop provided via video conference and aimed at presenting the STEP Technical Standards. The second workshop was organized over 2 full weeks at the WB's Headquarters and consisted in a training course to project managers from each survey firm on the survey instruments - Background Questionnaire and Reading Literacy Assessment - as well as on implementation and data management procedures.
(iii) Based on the STEP Technical Standards, the survey firms adapted and translated the STEP survey instruments, the Interviewer Manual, and all training materials.
(iv) Once the instruments had been adapted and translated, survey firms carried out a pre-test, usually including 20-30 interviews. Findings from the pre-test were discussed with the WB STEP team and ETS to finalize the adaptation and translation of the STEP survey instruments.
(v) Each survey firm provided a 2-week training course to its enumerators, using training materials developed by the WB STEP team (after translation and adaptation). The WB STEP team's Survey Consultant helped organize the training and was present in the country for the first few days at least of the training. In addition, the WB STEP team in Washington DC provided just-in-time technical assistance, answering questions sent by the survey firm during the training. The training included in-field mock interviews in addition to in-class courses. At the end of the training, survey firms only retained enumerators having demonstrated a good understanding of the instruments.
(vi) As per STEP Technical Standards, data collection started within a few days of the end of the enumerators' training course.The composition of each country's fieldwork teams is described in the NSDPR, as well as reporting procedures and quality control processes.Weekly reports were sent to the WB STEP team, which provided just-in-time technical assistance during fieldwork to answer questions or concerns. Regular calls or VCs were also held between survey firms and the WB STEP team to discuss progress. Matters discussed usually involved questions on how to deal with specific situations, strategies to reduce non-response, the activation of reserve households, and general pace of progress. Non-response rates were high in Bolivia and Colombia, in part due to difficult access to appartment buildings and gated communities, although survey firms worked hard to gain local community leaders' support. In a few instances - all documented in the weighting documentation - a couple of EAs were replaced due to security concerns or because an EA had been completely altered (e.g. construction site, dwellings converted into a large shopping center).
(vii) Interviews lasted between 120 and 150 minutes, depending on respondents' reading proficiency.
Detailed information on the survey processes is provided in the National Survey Design Planning Report (NSDPR) provided as an external resource. The document describes the project management structure, fieldwork teams and reporting processes.
Étude Économique Conseil Inc.
The STEP survey instruments include:
(i) A Background Questionnaire developed by the WB STEP team.
(ii) A Reading Literacy Assessment developed by Educational Testing Services (ETS).
All countries adapted and translated both instruments following the STEP Technical Standards: 2 independent translators adapted and translated the Background Questionnaire and Reading Literacy Assessment, while reconciliation was carried out by a third translator. In Kenya the section of the questionnaire assessing behavior and personality traits (Module 6) was translated into Swahili to adapt to respondents' language preferences, so that the respondent could choose to answer in either English or Swahili.
- The survey instruments were both piloted as part of the survey pretest.
- The adapted Background Questionnaires are provided in English as external resources. The Reading Literacy Assessment is protected by copyright and will not be published.
EEC Canada Inc. was responsible for data entry and processing.
The STEP Data management process is as follows:
1. Raw data is sent by the survey firm
2. The WB STEP team runs data checks on the Background Questionnaire data.
- ETS runs data checks on the Reading Literacy Assessment data.
- Comments and questions are sent back to the survey firm.
3. The survey firm reviews comments and questions. When a data entry error is identified, the survey firm corrects the data.
4. The WB STEP team and ETS check the data files are clean. This might require additional iterations with the survey firm.
5. Once the data has been checked and cleaned, the WB STEP team computes the weights. Weights are computed by the STEP team to ensure consistency across sampling methodologies.
6. ETS scales the Reading Literacy Assessment data.
7. The WB STEP team merges the Background Questionnaire data with the Reading Literacy Assessment data and computes derived variables.
World Bank. Kenya STEP Skills Measurement Household Survey 2013 (Wave 2). Ref. KEN_2013_STEP-HH_v02_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
(c) STEP 2014, The World Bank
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (March 2016)
Changes in v02 of study documentation compared to v01 published in February 2015
- v01 datasets were replaced with v02
- Study Title, Series Information and Abstract were edited