Impact Evaluation of Scaling-up Handwashing and Rural Sanitation Behavior Projects in Tanzania 2012
The association between hygiene, sanitation and health is well documented, yet thousands of children die each year from exposure to contaminated fecal matter. At the same time, evidence on the effectiveness of at-scale behavior change interventions to improve sanitation and hygiene practices is limited.
In response to the preventable threats posed by poor sanitation and hygiene, the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has launched two large projects, Global Scaling Up Handwashing and Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation, to improve the health and welfare outcomes for millions of people in developing nations. These projects have been implemented by local and national governments with technical support from WSP.
Researchers from the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank studied these two projects impemented in rural Tanzania, with the objective of tracing the causal chain from hygiene and sanitation promotion to changes in child health outcomes. The research team specifically tested for potential interaction effects of combining handwashing and sanitation interventions. The study was designed as an effectiveness trial to provide evidence for policymakers and government implementing agencies planning at-scale campaigns.
From mid-2009 to early 2011, two interventions were rolled out in ten districts of Tanzania following a factorial experimental design. 181 rural wards included in the study were divided into four groups to receive the handwashing intervention alone, the sanitation intervention alone, both the handwashing and sanitation, or neither intervention (control group).
A baseline was planned for early 2009 but was aborted due to logistical field challenges. Since random assignment of implementation was adhered to, the study continued and researchers conducted an endline survey in 2012, approximately one year after the conclusion of the program. The survey included 3,619 households and 5,768 children under five years old.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Edited datasets for public distribution
362 rural villages across 181 wards in 10 districts of Tanzania
Unit of analysis
individuals, households, villages
Households within selected treatment and control areas that had at least one child under 5 years old at the time of the endline survey in 2012
Producers and sponsors
Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Tanzania
Local engagement and oversight
Water and Sanitation Program Africa
Assistance to study design and implementation
Water and Sanitation Program Global
Assistance to survey preparation
Water and Sanitation Program Tanzania
Tanzania Ministry of Water
Government engagement and design inputs
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Joachim De Weerdt
Economic Development Initiatives (EDI)
The ten selected intervention districts were selected by the Ministry of Water (MoW) and Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW). The districts were spread throughout the country to provide geographic diversity at the national level. These districts were not random, and were targeted because of operational feasibility for program implementation, taking into account the existence of ongoing MoW and MoHSW projects, including the Health Village Campaign (HVC) and water and sanitation interventions.
Of 245 wards in these 10 districts, initially 13 wards were dropped from the sample. Three of these wards were urban, and thus ineligible for the program, and the remaining 10 wards were pre-selected as pilot areas for the program and excluded from the evaluation. Among the remaining 232 wards the program selected the 190 largest wards by population size in order to maximize the population under treatment.
The within-ward sampling procedure followed program operational guidelines targeting the two largest villages in each treatment ward, based on population size, in each of the 181 evaluation wards. For the 362 villages in the sample, the full list of census enumeration areas (EAs) was obtained from the Tanzanian National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). For each village, the sample included one EA, selected with probability proportional to size (PPS). A census listing exercise was then conducted in each EA to collect basic information to determine household eligibility for the survey. Survey eligibility criteria were (i) the household was present during the period of listing; (ii) had been living in the village since the beginning of 2009 or earlier; and (iii) had at least one child under the age of five. Ten eligible households were then selected from each EA at random for the sample.
The survey included 3,619 households and 5,768 children under five, with an effective response rate of 97.8%.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
The survey included household, community and listing questionnaires.
The household survey included modules for the head of household as well as the primary caregiver of children under 5.
All surveys were done on the electronic platform SurveyBe. All interviews were conducted in Swahili, taking approximately 2 to 3 hours per household to complete.
Economic Development Initiatives
All data was captured electronically and submitted via wireless signal to the EDI offices where consistency checks were made.
Public use files
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Bertha Briceno, Inter-American Development Bank; Aidan Coville, World Bank; Sebastian Martinez, Inter-American Development Bank. Impact Evaluation of Scaling-up Handwashing and Rural Sanitation Behavior Projects in Tanzania 2012, Endline Survey (SHRSBIE-EL). Ref. TZA_2012_SHRSBIE-EL_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.