Following the pattern set in the first two rounds of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS), the questionnaire used for the third round again covered a wide spectrum of topics such as education, health, housing, employment, income and expenditure, which affect the living standards of households. GLSS III thus provides data on various aspects of Ghanaian household economic and social activities, which are of help for monitoring the impact of the Government's Economic Recovery Programme.
GLSS III differed from the two previous rounds, however, in concentrating particularly on the income, consumption and expenditure of households at a much more disaggregated level than previously. As a result, GLSS III provides more accurate estimates of income and expenditure, including the imputed value of home produced food which is consumed by households. The data on household expenditure are also being used to derive the weights needed for rebasing the Consumer Price Index. The GLSS data on income, consumption and expenditure, together with other individual, household and community level data collected in GLSS III, will also provide a valuable database for national and regional planning purposes. Detailed anthropometric data had been collected in GLSS I and GLSS II, involving the need to include an anthropometrist in each survey team. This topic had to be dropped from GLSS III, so that the expanded income, consumption and expenditure data could be collected.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS)
The World Bank
A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the GLSS sample. Initially, 4565 households were selected for GLSS III, spread around the country in 407 small clusters. in general, 15 households were taken in an urban cluster and 10 households in a rural cluster. The actual achieved sample was 4552 households. Because of the sample design used, and the very high response rate, the sample can be considered as being self-weighting, though in the case of expenditure data, weighting of the expenditure values is required.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Three types of questionnaires were used for GLSS III: a household questionnaire, a community questionnaire and a price questionnaire.
- The household questionnaire consists of two parts. Part A collected information on household composition, education, health and fertility, employment and time use, migration, and housing characteristics, and it was also used to identify the respondents for Part B. Part B covered agricultural activities, including the consumption of home produce, household expenditure, non-farm enterprises, other income and expenditure, and credit, assets, and savings.
- All urban households were given a special diary, and requested to record on a separate page each day all the expenses they incurred. This had to be done by a literate member of the household who had already been identified during the listing exercise. In the case of illiterate households the supervisor or the supplementary interviewer visited them and did the recording. Although to a large extent the use of diaries seems to have served its intended purpose of facilitating the recording of expenditures for many urban households, some caution has to be taken in interpreting the results and estimates derived from the diaries. In particular, while most of the expenses incurred by the household as a unit are likely to have been recorded fairly accurately, it is possible that some of the expenses made by individual members of the household outside the home may have been missed.
- Details of infrastructure and other facilities available to rural communities were recorded in the community questionnaire. This questionnaire was usually administered at a meeting with the community chief, along with his elders and other knowledgeable people in the community.
- The price questionnaire was used to collect information on prices in the local market. This information is needed for comparing prices in different parts of the country, which would allow the construction of regional price indexes and the adjustment of household expenditures to a common base so as to take account of regional variations in purchasing power.
The data collected in this survey were entered directly onto microcomputers which had been installed in the eight regional capitals. Kumasi and Accra had two PCs each, while Tamale, Sunyani, Koforidua, Ho, Cape Coast and Sekondi/Takoradi had one each. Special interactive software programs had been prepared for data entry and checking, using the software package Rode-PC. Data entry was done in two rounds. In both urban and rural clusters interviewers completed Part A of the questionnaire by the end of the fifth visit to each household; and after checking them, the supervisor took these questionnaires straight away to the regional capital, where the data entry operator began keying in. Once Part B had been completed, the supervisor took these questionnaires to the regional capital, and returned with the Part A questionnaires, plus detailed printouts showing what errors had been discovered by the editing program during the keying in operation. These errors were then corrected in the field. By the time the data entry operator had finished keying in the second batch of questionnaires (Part B), the team would have moved from those clusters to the next set of clusters. However, the next set of clusters were very close to the previous ones, so going back to correct errors detected in the second round involved travelling only a short distance. This arrangement made field reconciliation fairly easy. In addition, each set of clusters had been chosen close together so as to make supervision relatively easy. Finally, clusters in areas that were hardly accessible during the rainy season were scheduled to be covered during the dry season. At regular intervals during the fieldwork the diskettes containing the GLSS III data for each completed cycle were returned to the headquarters in Accra. Final tabulations were produced using the SAS software package.
The Ghana Statistical Statistical Service accepts the offer of the LSMS Database Administrator to distribute the data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey. The Agreement will operate under the conditions listed below.
1. The Ghana Statistical Service retains complete control of who are allowed to use the data, and all wishing to use the data should obtain prior permission from the Ghana Statistical Service. This permission can be obtained by sending an outline of the proposed research together with contact information to:
Dr. Grace Bediako
Ghana Statistical Service
P.O. Box GP 1098
tel (233) (21) 682647, 682657, 682694, 663578
fax (233) (21) 664304
2. Before the data may be released by the LSMS Database Administrator, a receipt from the Ghana Statistical Service indicating a fee has been transferred to the Ghana Statistical Service Account with the Bank of Ghana should be produced. Users must contact the Ghana Statistical Service for information on the fee structure. Payment can also be made by check issued to the Ghana Statistical Service and sent to the Government Statistician at the above address.
Account Name: GHANA STATISTICAL SERVICE
Address: Box GP 1098, Accra
Account Number: 02-253-600-580-00
Destination Bank: Bank of Ghana
Swift Code: BAGHGHAC
Please fax a copy of the receipt of payment to 233-21-664304
3. Users requesting permission to use the data should also fill in and send the agreement form which specifies the conditions for use of the data. The preferred method for sending the agreement form is by e-mail.
4. Under this agreement, the LSMS Office will be responsible for distributing the data for all countries outside Ghana, while the Ghana Statistical Service will distribute the data to users within Ghana. The CD-ROMs, containing both data and documentation, will be sent to you as soon as possible.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download of the data files (for datasets obtained on-line)
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) and The World Bank. Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS) 1991-1992. Ref. GHA_1991_GLSS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.