Since its inception in 1995, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, known as MICS, has become the largest source of statistically sound and internationally comparable data on women and children worldwide. In countries as diverse as Costa Rica, Mali and Qatar, trained fieldwork teams conduct face-to-face interviews with household members on a variety of topics – focusing mainly on those issues that directly affect the lives of children and women. MICS has been a major source of data on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators and will be a major data source in the post-2015 era.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 5 (MICS5) is the fifth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), 2005-2007 (MICS3) and 2009-2011 (MICS4). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fifth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS5) is scheduled for 2013-2016 and survey results are expected to be available from 2015 onwards. Data collected in MICS5 will play a critical role in the final assessment of the MDGs in September 2015 and subsequent surveys in MICS6 will provide the baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals that will follow.
Information on more than 130 internationally agreed-upon indicators is being collected through MICS5. In addition to collecting information on intervention coverage, MICS also explores knowledge of and attitudes to certain topics, and specific behaviors of women, men and children, enabling analysts to gain insights into behaviours that may affect women’s and children’s lives. MICS routinely disaggregates data so that disparities associated with age, gender, education, wealth, location of residence, ethnicity and other characteristics are revealed.
The Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a household survey programme conducted in 2014 by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia with technical and financial support from UNICEF. The survey provides statistically sound and internationally comparable data essential for developing evidence-based policies and programmes, and for monitoring progress toward national goals and global commitments. Among these global commitments are those emanating from the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action, the Education for All Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The findings of the 2014 Serbia MICS will be critically important for final MDG reporting in 2015, and are expected to form part of the baseline data for the post-2015 era. The 2014 Serbia MICS is expected to contribute to the evidence base of several other important initiatives, including Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed, a global movement to end child deaths from preventable causes, and the accountability framework proposed by the Commission on Information and Accountability for the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health.
The 2014 Serbia MICS was carried out on the nationally representative sample. At the national level a total of 7,351 households were selected: 2,921 households with children and 4,430 households without children. The 2014 Serbia MICS sample is not self-weighting. For reporting of the national level results, sample weights were used. A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Attitudes Toward Children with Disabilities, Household Characteristics, Cash Benefit and Water and Sanitation;
- Women: Woman’s Background, Fertility, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union and Life Satisfaction;
- Children: Child's Age, Birth Registration, Birth Grant, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Anthropometry.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and other areas, and for the four regions of the country: Belgrade, Vojvodina, Sumadija and Western Serbia, and Southern and Eastern Serbia.
Stratification was done according to type of settlement (urban and other), and 25 Areas (Belegrade, West Backa, South Banat, South Backa, North Banat, North Backa, Central Banat, Srem, Zlatibor, Kolubara, Macva, Moravica, Pomoravlje, Rasina, Raska, Sumadija, Bor, Branicevo, Zajecar, Jablanica, Nisava, Pirot, Danube, Pcinja, and Toplica).
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. A random sample of enumeration areas (cluster of households) was selected with probability proportional to size (PPS) at the first stage. A sample of households was selected in each enumeration area in the second stage. (A different procedure was used in three large enumeration areas; see the section on listing activities).
The number of households selected per cluster was determined as 18 households. This decision was based on a number of considerations, including the design effect, the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. In the selected clusters a further stratification (2nd stage stratification) was done into two strata: households with children under five years of age and households without children under five.
The target sample size for the 2014 Serbia MICS was set to 7200 households and 400 enumeration areas. The sample size was determined based on a review of the 2010 Serbia MICS results along with a discussion on budget constraints. The tentatively planned sample size was further assessed by supplementary calculations using the MICS Sample Size Calculation Template.
The 2011 Serbian Population Census frame was used for the selection of clusters. Census enumeration areas were defined as primary sampling units (PSUs)and were selected from each of the sampling strata by using systematic pps (probability proportional to size) sampling procedures, based on the number of households in each enumeration area from the 2011 Population Census frame. The first stage of sampling was thus completed by selecting the required number of enumeration areas from each of the 25 strata (Areas), by urban and other domains separately.
Since the sampling frame (the 2011 Population Census) was not up-to-date, a new listing of households was conducted in all the sample enumeration areas prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed who visited all of the selected enumeration areas and listed the occupied households.
Updated lists of households were prepared by the listing teams in the field for each sample enumeration area and sent to the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Afterwards, the updated lists of the households in the enumeration areas were classified into two 2nd stage strata (categories): households with children under 5 and households without children. A separate sample of households was selected from each stratum, using a higher sampling rate for households with children under 5. This sampling strategy increased the number of children under 5 in the sample in order to increase the precision of the indicators based on under-5 children.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 - Final Report" pp.260-263.
Of the 7,351 households selected for the sample, 6,959 were found to be occupied. Of these, 6,191 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 89 percent.
In the interviewed households, 4,997 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 4,713 were successfully interviewed, yielding a women’s response rate of 94 percent within the interviewed households.
There were 2,773 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 2,720 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98 percent within interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 84 and 87 percent were calculated for the completion of the women and children under five questionnaires, respectively.
Sample weights were calculated for each of the data files.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal value of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in a particular sampling stratum, from certain Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) within certain category. The sampling fraction is the product of the probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRhc = Number of interviewed households in stratum hc /Number of sample occupied households in stratum hc
The non-response adjustment factors for women’s and under 5’s questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. The numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The household weights and individual weights were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each cluster and 2nd stage stratum (with/without children under 5). These weights were then normalized, one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is performed by dividing the aforementioned design weights by the average design weight at the national level. The average design weight is calculated as the sum of the design weights divided by the unweighted total. A similar procedure was followed in obtaining normalized weights for the women’s and under-5’s questionnaires. Normalized weights varied between 0.07 and 25.05 in the 400 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting the data for each sample household, woman and under-5 with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 8 data collection teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 14 days in January 2014 for both surveys. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent 2 days in practice interviewing in Zrenjanin in both urban and other areas. Trainees also practiced measuring the weights and heights of children in 5 kindergartens in Zrenjanin.
The data were collected by 8 teams for the general population; each team was comprised of 4 interviewers, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor (the editor or supervisor was also the driver). Fieldwork began on 1 February 2014 and concluded on 30 April 2014 for the 2014 Serbia MICS.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS5 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Attitudes Toward Children with Disabilities, Household Characteristics, Cash Benefit and Water and Sanitation.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. The questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes Woman's Background, Fertility, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union and Life Satisfaction.
The children's questionnaire includes Child's Age, Birth Registration, Birth Grant, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Anthropometry.
The questionnaires were developed in English from the MICS5 Model Questionnaires, and were customised and translated into Serbian and were pre-tested in Zrenjanin during November 2013. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Data were entered using CSPro software, Version 5.0. The data entry was carried out by 8 data entry operators using 8 microcomputers, with support of 1 data entry supervisor. For quality assurance purposes, all questionnaires were doubleentered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS programme and adapted to the 2014 Serbia MICS and 2014 Serbia Roma Settlements MICS questionnaires were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in February 2014 and was completed in May 2014 for both surveys. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 21. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customized and used for the standard MICS modules while new syntaxes and tabulation plans were developed for non-standard MICS modules and questions.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. For survey indicators that are means, proportions or ratios, the Taylor series linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value (r) of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling based on the same sample size. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design of the survey is as efficient as a simple random sample for a particular indicator, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, programmes developed in CSPro Version 5.0 and SPSS Version 21 Complex Samples module have been used. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for urban and other areas, and for all regions. Eight of the selected indicators are based on households members, 11 are based on women, and 14 are based on children under 5.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population (weighted)
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women (weighted)
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires (weighted)
- Birth date reporting: Household population (unweighted)
- Birth date and age reporting: Women (unweighted)
- Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s (unweighted)
- Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people (unweighted)
- Birth date reporting: First and last births (unweighted)
- Completeness of reporting (weighted)
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight (unweighted)
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Stunting (unweighted)
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting (unweighted)
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements (unweighted)
- Observation of birth certificates (unweighted)
- Observation of vaccination cards (unweighted)
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire (weighted)
- Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules (unweighted)
- School attendance by single age (weighted)
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living (unweighted)
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 - Final Report" pp.287-297.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014, Ref. SRB_2014_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.