Since its inception in 1995, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, known as MICS, has become the largest source of statistically sound and internationally comparable data on women and children worldwide. In countries as diverse as Costa Rica, Mali and Qatar, trained fieldwork teams conduct face-to-face interviews with household members on a variety of topics – focusing mainly on those issues that directly affect the lives of children and women. MICS has been a major source of data on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators and will be a major data source in the post-2015 era.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 5 (MICS5) is the fifth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), 2005-2007 (MICS3) and 2009-2011 (MICS4). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fifth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS5) is scheduled for 2013-2016 and survey results are expected to be available from 2015 onwards. Data collected in MICS5 will play a critical role in the final assessment of the MDGs in September 2015 and subsequent surveys in MICS6 will provide the baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals that will follow.
Information on more than 130 internationally agreed-upon indicators is being collected through MICS5. In addition to collecting information on intervention coverage, MICS also explores knowledge of and attitudes to certain topics, and specific behaviors of women, men and children, enabling analysts to gain insights into behaviours that may affect women’s and children’s lives. MICS routinely disaggregates data so that disparities associated with age, gender, education, wealth, location of residence, ethnicity and other characteristics are revealed.
The Montenegro Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2013 by the Statistical Office of Montenegro (MONSTAT). Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and UN Montenegro. MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The 2013 Montenegro MICS was conducted as part of the fifth global round of MICS surveys (MICS5). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), EU integration and other internationally agreed upon commitments.
Montenegro participated in the third global round of MICS surveys (MICS3) in 2005, at that time as part of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In the fifth round of the MICS surveys (MICS5), scheduled for 2012–2014, Montenegro participated for the first time as a sovereign state. The survey provides a rich foundation of comparative data for comprehensive reporting on progress towards national MDGs targets and EU integration. The 2013 Montenegro MICS survey captures rapid changes in key indicators between this and the previous round of the survey especially regarding the situation of the most vulnerable children – children in the poorest households, Roma children or those living in rural areas – and in that way contributes to expanding the evidence base for policies and programmes.
Datasets documented here cover Montenegro national sample representative of the whole population of Montenegro. The 2013 Montenegro MICS has a stratified, twostage cluster sample design. The sample for the 2013 Montenegro MICS was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women and men at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the three regions of Montenegro: the South, Centre and North. The findings pertain to March–May 2013, when the fieldwork was conducted.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation, Handwashing;
- Women: Woman’s Background, Fertility, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Postnatal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction;
- Men: Men’s Background, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction.
- Children: Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household and all men aged between 15-49 years.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Statistical Office of Montenegro
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Montenegro Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the three regions of the North, Centre and South of the country.
A stratified, two-stage, cluster random sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Montenegro MICS was calculated as 4,600 households. For the calculation of the sample size, various indicators were used, including the following: the contraceptive prevalence rate for women who are currently married or in a union (with a 2005 estimate of 39.4 percent, and a calculated sample size of 1,050 households); child disability (with a 2005 estimate of 12.5 percent and calculated sample size of 4,456 households); and child labour (with a 2005 estimate of 9.9 percent and a sample size calculation of 9,444 households).
Since the sampling frame (the 2011 Population Census) was not up-to-date, a new listing of households was conducted in all the sample enumeration areas prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed to visit each enumeration area, and to list the occupied households.
MONSTAT was responsible for recruitment of the teams responsible for listing and fieldwork. For each team, the maps and descriptions of the selected cluster from the 2011 Census were provided. The interviewers' task was to go to the specific area and to mark whether the dwelling is occupied or unoccupied; to fill in the name for head of household and correct address; and to note whether children under 5 live in the household. The listing was carried out from 22 January until 10 February 2013.
Lists of households were prepared by the listing teams in the field for each enumeration area and sent to MONSTAT. Afterwards, the updated lists of households were divided into two categories: households with children under 5 and households without children under 5. A different number of households was selected systematically from each category in the sample enumeration areas.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013 - Final Report" pp.279-281.
Of the 4,596 households selected for the sample, 4,425 were found to be occupied. Of these, 4,052 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 91.6 percent.
In the interviewed households, 3,606 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 3,493 were successfully interviewed, yielding a women’s response rate of 96.9 percent within the interviewed households.
In the interviewed households, 1,872 men (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 1,799 were successfully interviewed, yielding a men's response rate of 96.1 percent within the interviewed households.
There were 1,441 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 1,420 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98.5 percent within interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 88.7, 88.0 and 90.2 percent were calculated for the completion of the women, men and children under five questionnaires, respectively.
The 2013 Montenegro MICS is not self-weighting, essentially, by disproportional allocation of the sample to the strata, categories of households (with/without children under 5) and the final non-response. For this reason, sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal value of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in a particular sampling stratum, from certain Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) within certain category. The sampling fraction is the product of the probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRhc = Number of interviewed households in stratum hc /Number of sample occupied households in stratum hc
The non-response adjustment factors for women’s, men’s and under-5s’ questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. The numbers of eligible women, men and children under 5 were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed. Since the men’s questionnaires were conducted only in half of the households, this half sample approach was taken into account during the calculation of men’s sample weights.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area and second-stage stratum (with/without children). These weights were then standardised (or normalised), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalisation is achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for nonresponse) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for non-response). A similar standardisation procedure was followed in obtaining standardised weights for the women’s and under-5s’ questionnaires and men’s questionnaires. Adjusted (normalised) weights varied between 0.09 and 5.01 in the 230 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman, under-5 child or man with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the eight data collection teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted over 12 days in February 2013 for both surveys. 55 participants attended the fieldwork training. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent two days in practice interviewing in Bar in both urban and rural areas. Trainees also practiced measuring the weight and height of children in a kindergarten in Bar.
The data were collected by eight teams for the general population survey; each was comprised of two interviewers, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. Training, fieldwork and data processing were conducted at the same time for the Montenegro MICS samples. Fieldwork began for both surveys on 4 March 2013 and was concluded on 10 May 2013.
Statistical Office of Montenegro
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS5 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation, Handwashing.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49, children under age five and men age 15-49. The questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes Woman's Background, Fertility, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Postnatal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction.
The men's questionnaire includes Men's Background, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction.
The children's questionnaire includes Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 model questionnaire. The questionnaires were translated into Montenegrin from the English version of the MICS5 model and were pre-tested in Podgorica, Niksic and Cetinje during January 2013. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Data was entered using CSPro software. The data was entered on 10 microcomputers and carried out by 15 data entry operators and one data entry supervisor. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were entered twice and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS5 programme and adapted to the Montenegro questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in March 2013 and was completed in May 2013 for both surveys. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearisation method
is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the
standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from the MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include the weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for Montenegro, for urban and rural areas, and for the regions. Ten of the selected indicators are based on household members, 14 are based on women, six are based on men and seven are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Birth date reporting: Household population
- Birth date and age reporting: Women
- Birth date and age reporting: Men
- Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s
- Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people
- Birth date reporting: First and last births
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013 - Final Report" pp.303-312.
Statistical Office of Montenegro
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Statistical Office of Montenegro. Montenegro Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2013, Ref. MNE_2013_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Location of Data Collection
Archive where study is originally stored
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.