Since its inception in 1995, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, known as MICS, has become the largest source of statistically sound and internationally comparable data on women and children worldwide. In countries as diverse as Costa Rica, Mali and Qatar, trained fieldwork teams conduct face-to-face interviews with household members on a variety of topics – focusing mainly on those issues that directly affect the lives of children and women. MICS has been a major source of data on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators and will be a major data source in the post-2015 era.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 5 (MICS5) is the fifth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), 2005-2007 (MICS3) and 2009-2011 (MICS4). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fifth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS5) is scheduled for 2013-2016 and survey results are expected to be available from 2015 onwards. Data collected in MICS5 will play a critical role in the final assessment of the MDGs in September 2015 and subsequent surveys in MICS6 will provide the baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals that will follow.
Information on more than 130 internationally agreed-upon indicators is being collected through MICS5. In addition to collecting information on intervention coverage, MICS also explores knowledge of and attitudes to certain topics, and specific behaviors of women, men and children, enabling analysts to gain insights into behaviours that may affect women’s and children’s lives. MICS routinely disaggregates data so that disparities associated with age, gender, education, wealth, location of residence, ethnicity and other characteristics are revealed.
The Montenegro Roma Settlements Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS-RS) were carried out in 2013 by the Statistical Office of Montenegro (MONSTAT). Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and UN Montenegro. MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The 2013 Montenegro Roma Settlements MICS was conducted as part of the fifth global round of MICS surveys (MICS5). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), EU integration and other internationally agreed upon commitments.
Montenegro participated in the third global round of MICS surveys (MICS3) in 2005, at that time as part of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In the fifth round of the MICS surveys (MICS5), scheduled for 2012-2014, Montenegro participated for the first time as a sovereign state. The survey provides a rich foundation of comparative data for comprehensive reporting on progress towards national MDGs targets and EU integration. The 2013 Montenegro MICS survey captures rapid changes in key indicators between this and the previous round of the survey especially regarding the situation of the most vulnerable children - children in the poorest households, Roma children or those living in rural areas - and in that way contributes to expanding the evidence base for policies and programmes.
The sample for the 2013 Montenegro Roma Settlements MICS was designed to provide estimates of a large number of indicators on the situation of children, women and men in the Roma settlements of Montenegro, at the level of Montenegro. The findings pertain to March-May 2013, when the fieldwork was conducted.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation, Handwashing;
- Women: Woman’s Background, Fertility, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Postnatal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction;
- Men: Men’s Background, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction.
- Children: Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household and all men aged between 15-49 years.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Statistical Office of Montenegro
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the 2013 Montenegro Roma Settlements MICS was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the level of Montenegro.
According to the 2011 Montenegro Census, there are only 1,541 Roma households in Montenegro, or less than 1 percent of all households in the country. (A Roma household was defined as a household with at least one Roma person.) In order to examine the geographical distribution of the Roma households, MONSTAT tabulated the total number of Roma households by EA. A total of 201 EAs were identified with at least one Roma household, and most of these (114 EAs) have only one or two Roma households. The EAs were sorted in reverse order of the number of Roma households, and it was found that only 33 EAs had 10 or more Roma households, and these EAs accounted for 73% of all the Roma households in Montenegro. A total of 63 EAs have five or more Roma households, and account for 85.5 percent of all Roma households. The Roma survey was limited to the areas with a greater concentration of Roma because the purpose of the 2013 Montenegro Roma Settlements MICS is not to make estimates for all Roma households in Montenegro - the aim is to survey Roma households which have not been assimilated into Montenegro society, and probably have a worse economic status than the average Montenegrin household.
It was decided that it would be both cost-effective and analytically appropriate to limit the 2013 Montenegro Roma settlements MICS to EAs with 10 or more Roma households. The 33 EAs in this frame are listed. It can be seen that the two largest EAs have 148 and 178 Roma households; these EAs are in the areas referred to as the Roma camps. In these camps the families actually live in individual households, so it would be effective to conduct a household survey in these areas. A total of 12 EAs have 30 or more Roma households.
Since the sampling frame (the 2011 Population Census) was not up to date, a new listing of households was conducted in 33 sample enumeration areas prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed, who visited each enumeration area and listed the occupied households.
MONSTAT was responsible for the recruitment of the teams responsible for listing and fieldwork. For each team, maps and descriptions of the selected cluster from the 2011 Census were provided. The interviewers' task was to go to the specific area and to record whether the dwelling is occupied or unoccupied; whether a Roma household lives in the dwelling or not; fill in the name of the head of household and the correct address; note whether children under 5 live in the household; and note whether at least one member of the household is Roma or Egyptian. If at least one member of the household was found to be Roma or Egyptian that household was classified as a Roma household. The listing was carried out from 22 January until 10 February 2013. During the listing of Roma households as well as during data collection, it was effective to use Roma enumerators who were more likely to elicit cooperation with the Roma community. Therefore, in one of the teams for data collection two interviewers and a measurer/driver were Roma and were responsible for interviewing only Roma households in Podgorica. In all other municipalities,
Roma households were interviewed by interviewers who were also responsible for households from the general population.
In order to increase the sample size for the Roma households and ensure a sufficient number of children in smaller subgroups related to certain indicators, 30 Roma households were selected in EAs where 30 or more Roma households are identified in the listing. In the case of EAs with less than 30 Roma households, they were all included in the sample, regardless of whether or not they have children under 5. In the case of EAs with 30 or more Roma households and at least 12 of these have children under 5, 12 Roma households with children and 18 households without children were selected. Where there were fewer than 12 Roma households with children under 5, all of them were selected and then the remaining households were selected from those without children under 5 to sum up to 30 households. Based on the distribution of the Roma households in the frame, this sampling approach resulted in a sample of 685 Roma households.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013 - Final Report" pp.283-285.
In Roma settlements, of the 685 households selected for the sample, 649 were found to be occupied. Of these, 615 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 95 percent.
In the interviewed households, 1,001 women (age 15–49 years) were identified. Of these, 980 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 98 percent within interviewed households.
In addition, 549 men (age 15–49 years) were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 536 of eligible men, which corresponds to a response rate of 98 percent within interviewed households.
There were 663 children under 5 listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 660 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of nearly 100 percent within interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 93, 93, and 94 percent are calculated for the women’s, men’s and under-5s’ interviews respectively.
The sample for the 2013 Montenegro Roma Settlements MICS is not self-weighting, essentially, because of dividing the sample in two categories of households – with and without children under 5; and the final non-response. For this reason, sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal value of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in a particular sampling stratum, from certain Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) within certain category. The sampling fraction is the product of the probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRhc = Number of interviewed households in stratum hc /Number of sample occupied households in stratum hc
The non-response adjustment factors for women’s, men’s and under-5’s questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. The numbers of eligible women, men and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area and second-stage stratum (with/without children). These weights were then standardised (or normalised), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the Roma sample size at the national level. Normalisation is achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for nonresponse) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for non-response). A similar standardisation procedure was followed in obtaining standardised weights for the women’s and under-5s’ questionnaires and men’s questionnaires. Adjusted (normalised) weights varied from [0.6] to [4.5] in the 33 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman, under-5 child or man with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for the data collection teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted over 12 days in February 2013 for both surveys. 55 participants attended the fieldwork training. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent two days in practice interviewing in Bar in both urban and rural areas. Trainees also practiced measuring the weight and height of children in a kindergarten in Bar.
The data were collected by one team for the Roma population survey. The team was comprised of two interviewers, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. In the team two interviewers and a measurer/driver were Roma who were responsible for interviewing only Roma households in Podgorica. In all other municipalities, the same interviewers conducted interviews for both Roma households and for households from general population. Training, fieldwork and data processing was conducted for the Montenegro Roma Settlements MICS samples. Fieldwork began for both surveys on 4 March 2013 and was concluded on 10 May 2013.
Statistical Office of Montenegro
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS5 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation, Handwashing.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49, children under age five and men age 15-49. The questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes Woman's Background, Fertility, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Postnatal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction.
The men's questionnaire includes Men's Background, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction.
The children's questionnaire includes Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 model questionnaire. The questionnaires were translated into Montenegrin from the English version of the MICS5 model and were pre-tested in Podgorica, Niksic and Cetinje during January 2013. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Data was entered using CSPro software. The data was entered on 10 microcomputers and carried out by 15 data entry operators and one data entry supervisor. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were entered twice and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS5 programme and adapted to the Montenegro questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in March 2013 and was completed in May 2013 for both surveys. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the Roma settlements, for urban and rural areas, and for the regions. Ten of the selected indicators are based on household members, 14 are based on women, six are based on men and seven are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Birth date reporting: Household population
- Birth date and age reporting: Women
- Birth date and age reporting: Men
- Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s
- Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people
- Birth date reporting: First and last births
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013 - Final Report" pp.313-323.
Statistical Office of Montenegro
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Statistical Office of Montenegro. Montenegro Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - Roma Settlements (MICS-RS) 2013, Ref. MNE_2013_MICS-RS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Location of Data Collection
Archive where study is originally stored
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.