Since its inception in 1995, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, known as MICS, has become the largest source of statistically sound and internationally comparable data on women and children worldwide. In countries as diverse as Costa Rica, Mali and Qatar, trained fieldwork teams conduct face-to-face interviews with household members on a variety of topics – focusing mainly on those issues that directly affect the lives of children and women. MICS has been a major source of data on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators and will be a major data source in the post-2015 era.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 5 (MICS5) is the fifth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), 2005-2007 (MICS3) and 2009-2011 (MICS4). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fifth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS5) is scheduled for 2013-2016 and survey results are expected to be available from 2015 onwards. Data collected in MICS5 will play a critical role in the final assessment of the MDGs in September 2015 and subsequent surveys in MICS6 will provide the baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals that will follow.
Information on more than 130 internationally agreed-upon indicators is being collected through MICS5. In addition to collecting information on intervention coverage, MICS also explores knowledge of and attitudes to certain topics, and specific behaviors of women, men and children, enabling analysts to gain insights into behaviours that may affect women’s and children’s lives. MICS routinely disaggregates data so that disparities associated with age, gender, education, wealth, location of residence, ethnicity and other characteristics are revealed.
The Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out during 2013-2014 by Vietnam General Statistics Office in collaboration with UNICEF, as part of the global MICS programme. Technical and financial support for the survey was provided by UNICEF.
The global MICS programme was developed by UNICEF in the 1990s as an international household survey to collect internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators to evaluate the situation of children and women. The survey provides statistically sound and internationally comparable data essential for developing evidence-based policies and programmes as well as monitoring progress towards national goals and global commitments including MDGs.
The sample for Vietnam MICS 2013-14 was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the national level situation of children and women in urban and rural areas as well as six geographic regions. Viet Nam MICS 2013-14 is based on a sample of 10,018 interviewed households, with 9,827 women and 3,316 children interviewed. A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation, and Handwashing;
- Women: Woman’s Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Fertility/Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Postnatal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, and HIV/AIDS;
- Children: Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, and Care of Illness.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years and all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Vietnam General Statistics Office
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Vietnam MICS 2013-14 (MICS5) was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for six regions: Red River Delta, Northern Midlands and Mountainous areas, North Central and Central coastal areas, Central Highlands, South East and Mekong River Delta of the country. Urban and rural areas in each of the six regions were defined as the sampling strata.
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The sample size for Vietnam MICS 2013-14 was calculated as 10,200 households. In the case of Vietnam MICS 2011 (MICS4), the indicator used for the calculation of the sample size was the underweight prevalence among children under 5 years old. Since this indicator was not included in Vietnam MICS 2013-14, the following seven different indicators were chosen instead for calculating the sample size:
1. Use of improved sanitation facilities
2. Contraceptive prevalence
3. Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention
4. Complete antenatal care
5. Age-appropriate breastfeeding
6. Vitamin A supplementation
7. Early childhood education attendance.
The sampling frame used for the selection of sample clusters for Vietnam MICS 2013-14 was based on a 15 percent sample of enumeration areas used for the long formquestionnairesof the Population and Housing Census 2009 (PHC2009). Census enumeration areas were defined as primary sampling units (PSUs), and were selected from each of the sampling strata using systematic pps (probability proportional to size) sampling procedures, based on the number of households in each enumeration area from the PHC2009. The first stage of sampling was thus completed by selecting the required number of enumeration areas from each of the six regions, separately for the urban and rural strata.
Since the sampling frame (the PHC2009) was not up-to-date, a new listing of households was conducted in all the sample enumeration areas prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed with members from the district statistical offices (DSOs), who visited each enumeration area and listed all the households. Following the selection of sample enumeration areas, the listing activities were completed at the beginning of December 2013 by 369 teams, formed from 369 DSOs. Each team was responsible for listing about six enumeration areas on average. The listing teams closely collaborated with local authorities and were supervised by provincial statistical offices (PSOs) and the GSO.
Lists of households were prepared for all sampled enumeration areas and sent to the GSO. The GSO then directly selected the sample households from these lists. In each sampled enumeration area, the households were then sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each enumeration area). The selection of 20 households in each enumeration area was carried out using random systematic selection procedures.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013 - Final Report" pp.271-275.
Of the 10,200 households selected for the sample, 10,018 were found to be occupied. Of these, 9,979 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 99.6 percent.
In the interviewed households, 10,190 women (aged 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 9,827 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96.4 percent within interviewed households.
There were 3,346 children under-5 listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 3,316 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 99.1 percent within interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 96.1 and 98.7 percent were calculated for the individual interviews of women and children under-5, respectively.
The Vietnam MICS 2013-14 sample is not self-weighting. Essentially, by allocating equal numbers of households to each of the regions (1,700 households), while the different sampling fractions were used in each region since the population size of the regions are different. For this reason, sample weights have to be calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The weight is the reciprocal value of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in a particular sampling stratum, from certain Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) within certain category. The sampling fraction is the product of the probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A final component in the calculation of sample weights took into account the level of non-responses for the household and individual interviews.The adjustment for household non-responsesin each stratum is equal to: 1/RRh. Where RRh is the response rate for the sample households in stratum h, defined as the proportion of the number of interviewed households in stratum h out of the number of selected households found to be occupied during the fieldwork in stratum h. Similarly, adjustments for non-responses at an individual level (women and under-5 children) for each stratum is equal to: 1/RRh.
Where RRh is the response rate for the individual questionnaires in stratum h, defined as the proportion of eligible individuals (women and under-5 children) in the sample households in stratum h who were successfully interviewed. After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster.
The non-response adjustment factors for the individual women and under-5 questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the household questionnaire forhouseholds where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the inverse of the probabilities of selection by the non-response adjustment factor for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal to the total sample size at the national level. Normalization was achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for non-responses) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for non-response). A similar standardization procedure was followed to obtain standardized weights for the individual women and under-5 questionnaires. The normalized household weights varied between 0.177 and 2.473 in the 510 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman or under-5 with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 32 data collection teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 13 days in December 2013 with 180 trainees, the majority of whom were female, mobilized from the GSO, Province Statistical Offices (PSOs), District Statistics Offices (DSOs) and relevant stakeholders. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, the 180 trainees spent two days practice interviewing in a rural commune and an urban ward of Da Nang city, in central Viet Nam. All participants were examined at the end of the training and their results were used to select interviewers, data editors and team leaders for field work.
Data were collected by 32 teams from 16 December, 2013 to 25 January, 2014 (before the Lunar New Year “Tet holidays”). The number of teams was reduced to 16 from 28 February to 5 April, 2014. The reduction in the number of post-Tet survey teams was due to the smaller number of households left to be surveyed. Each survey team comprised of three interviewers, one field editor and one supervisor. Interpreters accompanied survey interviewers in areas with concentrations of ethnic minority households to assist in translating questions and responses to respondents and interviewers, respectively.
Vietnam General Statistics Office
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS5 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation, and Handwashing.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. The questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes Woman's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Fertility/Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Postnatal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, and HIV/AIDS.
The children's questionnaire includes Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, and Care of Illness.
The questionnaire form for vaccination records at commune health centres included the immunization module.
The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 model questionnaire. From the MICS5 model English version, the questionnaires were customized and translated into Vietnamese and cross-checked by translating back into English and compared with the original version. After a five-day Training of Trainers (TOT), the questionnaires were pre-tested in a commune and ward of Hoa Binh province during October 2013. Hoa Binh belongs to the Northern Midlands and Mountainous area and it is also home to the majority Kinh/Hoa people as well as the Muong ethnic minority people. Specifically, the rural commune of Dan Chu is home to concentrations of the Muong ethnic minority people, while Phuong Lam ward of Hoa Binh City is typically-sized urban ward. Based on the pre-test results, modifications were made to the wording and translations of the questionnaires.
Data were entered, using CSPro software Version 5.0, on 13 desktop computers by 12 data entry operators and two data entry supervisors. For quality assurance purposes, all questionnaires were double-entered and internal consistency checks performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS programme and adapted to the Viet Nam MICS 2014 questionnaires were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection on 25 December 2013 and was completed on 18 April 2014.
Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 21.0. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customized and used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. For survey indicators that are means, proportions or ratios, the Taylor series linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. For more complex statistics, such as fertility and mortality rates, the Jackknife repeated replication method is used for standard error estimation.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value (r) of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff ) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling based on the same sample size. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design of the survey is as efficient as a simple random sample for a particular indicator, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 per cent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from Vietnam MICS 2013-14 data, programmes developed in CSPro Version 5.0, SPSS Version 21 Complex Samples module and CMRJack1 have been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Given the use of normalized weights, by comparing the weighted and unweighted counts it is possible to determine whether a particular domain has been under-sampled or over-sampled compared to the average sampling rate. If the weighted count is smaller than the unweighted count, this means that the particular domain had been over-sampled. As explained later in the footnote of Table SE.1, there is an exception in the case of indicators 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 and 3.15, for which the unweighted count represents the number of sample households, and the weighted counts reflect the total population. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for all six regions. The selected indicators are based on household members, seven are based on women.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Birth date reporting: Household population
- Birth date and age reporting: Women
- Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s
- Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people
- Completeness of reporting
- Observation of birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Observation of women’s health cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
- Births by periods preceding the survey
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013 - Final Report" pp.336-354.
Nguyen Dinh Chung (Mr.)
Vietnam General Statistic Office
Vu Manh Hong (Mr.)
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United Nations Children's Fund, Vietnam General Statistics Office. Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2013, Ref. VNM_2013_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
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