What kind of toilet facility do members of your household usually use?
Flush to piped sewer system
Flush to septic tank
Flush to pit (latrine)
Flush to somewhere else
Flush to unknown place / Not sure / DK where
Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP)
Pit latrine with slab
Pit latrine without slab / Open pit
Pit latrine (UBVIP)
No facility, Bush, Field
Warning: these figures indicate the number of cases found in the data file. They cannot be interpreted as summary statistics of the population of interest.
Questions WS8, WS9, WS10 and WS11 are about the toilet facility household members use.
If necessary ask permission to observe the facility.
The purpose of this question is to obtain a measure of the hygiene of the sanitary facility used by the household members.
It may be necessary to observe the facility. If so, ask permission to do so. If the respondent answers or it is observed that the household members have no facilities or use the bush or field, enter '95' for 'No facilities or bush or field' and skip to the next module.
If any of the flush or pour flush responses (11-15) are given, probe: “Where does it flush to?” Circle the code corresponding to the response given.
Definitions of various types of toilet facilities are as follows:
A flush toilet uses a cistern or holding tank for flushing water and has a water seal, which is a U-shaped pipe, below the seat or squatting pan that prevents the passage of flies and odours. A pour flush toilet uses a water seal, but unlike a flush toilet, a pour flush toilet uses water poured by hand for flushing (no cistern is used).
'11' - A piped sewer system is a system of sewer pipes, also called sewerage, that is designed to collect human excreta (faeces and urine) and wastewater and remove them from the household environment. Sewerage systems consist of facilities for collection, pumping, treating and disposing of human excreta and wastewater.
'12' - A septic tank is an excreta collection device and is a water-tight settling tank normally located underground, away from the house or toilet.
'13' - A flush/pour flush to pit latrine refers to a system that flushes excreta to a hole in the ground and has a water seal.
'14' - A flush/pour flush to somewhere else refers to excreta being deposited in or nearby the household environment (may have a water seal but deposited not into pit, septic tank or sewer); excreta may be flushed to the street, yard/plot, drainage way or other location.
'15' - Flush to unknown place/Not sure/DK where should be coded in cases when the respondent knows that the toilet facility is a flush toilet, but does not know where it flushes to.
'21' - A ventilated improved pit latrine or VIP is a type of pit latrine that is ventilated by a pipe extending above the latrine roof. The open end of the vent pipe is covered with gauze mesh or fly-proof netting and the inside of the superstructure is kept dark.
'22' - A pit latrine with slab uses a hole in the ground for excreta collection and has a squatting slab, platform or seat (made of concrete, steel, or wood to allow standing with ease) that is firmly supported on all sides, easy to clean and raised above the surrounding ground level to prevent surface water from entering the pit.
'23' - A pit latrine without slab/Open pit uses a hole in the ground for excreta collection and does not have a squatting slab, platform, or seat. An open pit is a rudimentary hole in the ground where excreta is collected.
'31' - A composting toilet is a toilet into which excreta and carbon-rich material are added (vegetable wastes, straw, grass, sawdust, ash) and special conditions maintained to produce inoffensive compost.
'41' - Bucket refers to the use of a bucket or other container for the retention of faeces (and sometimes urine and anal cleaning material), which is periodically removed for treatment or disposal.
'51' - A hanging toilet/hanging latrine is a toilet built over the sea, a river, or other body of water into which excreta drops directly.
'95' - No facilities/bush/field includes excreta wrapped and thrown with garbage, the 'cat' method of burying excreta in dirt, defecation in the bush or field or ditch, and defecation into surface water (drainage channel, beach, river, stream or sea).
Survey Coordinators: Adapt these instructions, adding explanations of any additional categories. Be sure to retain the categories shown on the questionnaire. These will determine the number of households to count in the numerator of the water and sanitation indicators. Any other usual types of facilities that do not fit into these categories should also be listed here.
The purpose of the following two questions is to determine whether the household shares their sanitation facility with other households. The shared status of a sanitation facility is important because shared facilities can be less hygienic than facilities used by only a single household. Unhygienic conditions (faeces on the floor, seat or wall and flies) may discourage use of the facility.