Land Tenure Regularization Pilot Impact Evaluation 2010
The program of land tenure regularization (LTR) aims to clarify rights on all of Rwanda estimated 10 million land parcels as a precondition for their formalization and full legal recognition, manifested in the award of title certificates to land holders.
For this study, researchers from the World Bank assessed the impact of the rural pilots that preceded the national roll-out of Rwanda's LTR program using a geographic discontinuity design with spatial fixed effects. The study focused on the following questions:
- the extent of perceived land tenure security;
- the level of land transactions;
- land-related investment undertaken;
- the treatment of boys and girls in terms of inheritance;
- perception about the fairness of the process and access to information.
In the absence of a usable baseline survey, researchers relied on cross-sectional data, sampled from a narrow band on both sides of the pilot cell borders to assess program impacts. A survey administered in April–May 2010, about two and a half years after the start of LTR, was used to obtain information for 3,554 households with some 6,330 parcels.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Household and parcel (land) level
v01, edited anonymous version for public distribution
Biguhu, Kabushinge, Nyamugali and Mwoga
Producers and sponsors
UK Department for International Development
Global Land Tools Network
Bank Netherlands Partnership Program
Knowledge for Change Program
Gender Action Plan
The LTR pilots applied a participatory and low-cost process to systematically cover a total of 3,513 households with some 15,000 plots in four areas (one of them urban) that were chosen to reflect the country's heterogeneity.
The challenge of this study was lack of baseline data to make a credible assessment of the pilot program. This challenge was addressed by sampling on both sides of the borders of the pilot areas-using high precision satellite images and the cadastral survey-that allows the comparison of outcome variables between households inside (treated) and outside (non-treated) of the borders of the pilot cells. The discontinuity created by administrative boundaries in the introduction of the pilot program is, therefore, exploited as an identification strategy on the assumption that households close to a cell boundary, before the start of the program, were similar in unobservable factors affecting relevant outcomes. The sample was designed to yield numbers of households in each pilot cell equivalent to their share in the total, with a size of 3,554 households with some 6,330 land parcels, intended to be split equally across pilot and their neighboring cells.
The sample was to be distributed equally on both sides of the pilot cell boundary to create a treatment group (within the titled cell) and a control group (those just across the border in nonprogram cells). Parcel index maps created by the program were used to sample within pilot cells. For adjacent (control) cells, researchers used high resolution satellite imagery to visually identify dwellings that could then serve as a sample frame.
Dates of Data Collection
Household and plot survey
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
DECAR, World Bank
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Daniel Ali, Klaus Deininger, Markus Goldstein, World Bank. Rwanda Land Tenure Regularization Pilot Impact Evaluation 2010. RWA_2010_LTRPIE_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
v01 (November 2015)