The Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities in Kosovo Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS-RAEC) was carried out in 2013-2014 by the Kosovo Agency of Statistics, as part of the global MICS programme. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). UNICEF, the Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs of Austria, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (MLSW) provided financial support. UNICEF, UNFPA and MLSW as well as the World Health Organisation, the National Institute of Public Health, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, the Office of Strategic Planning and the Kosovo Agency of Statistics of the Office of the Prime Minister were represented on the Inter-Ministerial Technical and Steering Committees. Technical support was provided throughout the entire process through the secondment of UNICEF Staff and Consultants to work alongside the Kosovo Agency of Statistics during all stages of the implementation of these surveys.
The global MICS programme was developed by UNICEF in the 1990s as an international household survey programme to support countries in the collection of internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators on the situation of children and women. MICS surveys measure key indicators that allow countries to generate data for use in policies and programmes, and to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. This MICS presents up-to-date information for assessing the situation of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian children, women and men as well as to provide data for monitoring the existing strategies and action plans on the inclusion of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities. This MICS will also furnish data for designing future programme interventions and support evidence based planning of Kosovo institutions. Importantly it will provide data to inform Kosovo’s EU aspirations and planning in the EU enlargement process while contributing to improved quality in statistics, data collection, management and monitoring systems.
The 2013-2014 Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities in Kosovo MICS is a nationally representative sample survey in which 1,118 households, 1,439 women, 599 men and 735 mothers (or caretakers) on behalf of children under five were interviewed. This MICS was conducted in parallel to the 2013-2014 Kosovo MICS which was based on a separate sample. The Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities in Kosovo MICS has a sample of the population living in those particular communities. The fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 – March 2014 by the Kosovo Agency of Statistics with financial and technical support from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities
Unit of analysis
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all men age 15-49 years and all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Kosovo Agency of Statistics
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs of Austria
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
United Nations Population Fund
Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
The primary objective of the sample design for the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities in Kosovo MICS was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the Kosovo level. The sample was stratified by Enumeration Areas with more than 50 Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households and less than 50 Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households.
A two-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. The sample size for the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities in Kosovo MICS was calculated as about 1,200 households.
According to the 2011 Kosovo Census, there are only 6,308 Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households in Kosovo, or about two percent of all households. A Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian household is defined as a household with at least one person in the Roma, Ashkali or Egyptian ethnic groups. In order to examine the geographic distribution of the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households, KAS staff tabulated the total number of households with at least one person from these ethnic groups by EA. A total of 667 EAs were identified with at least one Roma/Ashkali/Egyptian household, but about half of these (338 EAs) have only one to three Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households. The EAs were sorted in reverse order of the number of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households. It was found that 169 EAs have 10 or more Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households, and these EAs account for 75.7% of all the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households in Kosovo.
It was decided that it would be both cost-effective and analytically appropriate to limit the MICS for the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian populations to the EAs with 10 or more Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households. Four EAs have more than 100 Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households, and another 18 EAs have between 50 and 99 households with persons of these ethnic groups. There are 147 EAs with between 10 and 49 Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households.
Some of the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian population identified in the 2011 Kosovo Census may have moved since that time, given a potentially higher migration rate for this population group as they find opportunities in other areas in Kosovo or countries in the Region. Therefore the current number of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households in the sample EAs will only be known following a new listing of households to identify those with at least one Roma, Ashkali or Egyptian person.
In order to provide a good level of precision for the key maternal and child health indicators for the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian population, it is recommended to have a sample size of about 1,200 households for these ethnic groups. The sampling strategy is similar to that used for the Kosovo MICS. At the first stage a sample of 80 EAs was selected with probability proportional to size (PPS) from the frame of EAs with 10 or more Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households, where the measure of size is based on the number of households with persons of these ethnic groups in the frame. Following a new listing to identify the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households in the sample EAs, 16 of these households were selected in each EA at the second sampling stage. With a sample of 80 EAs selected at the first stage, the final sample size would be about 1,200 households.
Based on the selection of 80 sample EAs with PPS, the EAs with 50 or more Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households were selected in the sample with a probability of 1. Since there are 22 such certainty EAs in the frame, a sample of 58 additional sample EAs were selected from the remainder of the frame with PPS.
Since the sampling frame (the 2011 census) was not up-to-date, a new listing of households was conducted in all the sample enumeration areas prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed who visited all of the selected enumeration areas and listed all households in the enumeration areas. They also asked if there was anyone from the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities living in the household to ascertain the total number from which the 16 households should be randomly selected. A separate three day listing training including a pilot in both urban and rural areas was conducted in August 2013 according to the recommended MICS procedures. A total of 26 enumerators were utilised for the listing exercise to cover the 80 EAs over August and September 2013.
Lists of households were prepared by the listing teams in the field for each enumeration area. The Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian households were then sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each enumeration area) at the Kosovo Agency for Statistics, where the selection of 16 households in each enumeration area was carried out using random systematic selection procedures. During the selection of EAs for the Kosovo MICS and the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities in Kosovo MICS a total of eight EAs were selected for both surveys, hence a separate a systematic sample of 16 households was drawn for each survey from those EAs. The survey also included a questionnaire for individual men that was to be administered in one-half of the sample of households. To ensure systematic random selection the even/odd nature of the last digit of the cluster number was then used in conjunction with the even/odd nature of the last digit of the household number to select the specific households for interviews with all eligible men. That is If the last digit of the cluster number was odd then all households with the last digit as odd were selected to administer the male questionnaire, etc.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013-14 - Final Report" pp.194-195.
Of the 1,266 households from the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities selected for the sample, 1,177 were found to be occupied. Of these, 1,118 were successfully interviewed yielding a household response rate of 95 percent.
In the interviewed households, 1,601 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 1,439 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 90 percent within the interviewed households.
The survey also sampled men (age 15-49), but required only a subsample. All men (age 15-49) were identified in every other household. A total of 811 men (age 15-49 years) were listed in the household questionnaires.
Questionnaires were completed for 599 eligible men, which corresponds to a response rate of 74 percent within eligible interviewed households.
There were 794 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 735 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 93 percent within interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 85, 70, and 88 percent are calculated for the individual interviews of women, men, and under-5s, respectively.
Sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling stratum and PSU. The sampling fraction is the product of probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A final component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response in each stratum is equal to: 1/RRh, where RRh is the response rate for the sample households in stratum h, defined as the proportion of the number of interviewed households in stratum h out of the number of selected households found to be occupied during the fieldwork in stratum h.
The non-response adjustment factors for the individual women, men, and under-5 questionnaires were applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women, men, and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the inverse of the probabilities of selection by the non-response adjustment factor for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal to the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for nonresponse) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for nonresponse). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the individual women, men, and under-5 questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights for households varied between 0.465295 and 3.638918 in the 80 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting households, women, men, or under-5s with these sample weights.
Since interviews with eligible men were conducted in one-half of the selected households, the sample weight for men includes an additional factor of 2, as well as the nonresponse adjustment factor.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
There is one supervisor for each of the 7 data collection teams in the field.
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS5 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes List of Household Members, Education, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation, and Handwashing.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49, men age 15-49 and children under age five. The questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes Woman's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Fertility/Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post-natal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use, and Life Satisfaction.
The men's questionnarie includes Man's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Fertility, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Circumcision, Tobacco and Alcohol Use, and Life Satisfaction.
The children's questionnaire includes Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Care of Illness, and Anthropometry.
For all children age 0-2 years with a completed Questionnaire for Children Under Five an additional form, the Questionnaire Form For Vaccination Records At Health Facility, was used to record vaccinations from the registers at health facilities. Although all vaccination records for children under 3 years of age were expected to be available with each parent, given the change in the immunization schedule in June 2010 it necessitated visits to health facilities to ensure accuracy in terms of data collection of immunization records given the possible complications. The MICS field staff copied the vaccination information from the immunization card of the child in the Health Facility.
The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 model questionnaire11. From the MICS5 model English version, the questionnaires were customised and translated into Albanian and Serbian languages and were pre-tested in Fushe Kosove/Kosovo Polje, Gracanice/Gracanica, and Zvecan/Zvecan municipalities during August 2013. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Kosovo Agency of Statistics
Data were entered using the CSPro software, Version 5.0. The data were entered on seven desktop computers and carried out by seven data entry operators and one data entry supervisor. For quality assurance purposes there were two questionnaire administrators and two secondary editors, all questionnaires were double-entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS programme and adapted to the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities in Kosovo questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in November 2013 and was completed in April 2014. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 20. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customized and used for this purpose.
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. For survey indicators that are means, proportions or ratios, the Taylor series linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. For more complex statistics, such as fertility and mortality rates, the Jackknife repeated replication method is used for standard error estimation.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value (r) of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) ) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling based on the same sample size. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the statistical efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design of the survey is as statistically efficient as a simple random sample for a particular indicator, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design. The design effects are mostly due to the clustering in the sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from the MICS data, programs developed in CSPro Version 5.0, SPSS Version 21 Complex Samples module and CMRJack have been used.
The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Given the use of normalized weights, by comparing the weighted and unweighted counts it is possible to determine whether a particular domain has been under-sampled or over-sampled compared to the average sampling rate. If the weighted count is smaller than the unweighted count, this means that the particular domain had been oversampled. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest at the Kosovo level. Ten of the selected indicators are based on households members, 19 are based on women, 7 are based on men, and 14 are based on children under 5.
Other forms of data appraisal
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Age distribution of children in household and under 5 questionnaires
- Birth date reporting: Household population
- Birth date and age reporting: Women
- Birth date and age reporting: Men
- Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s
- Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people
- Birth date reporting: First and last births
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Stunting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Observation of places for handwashing
- Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
- Births by periods preceding the survey
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013-14 - Final Report" pp.206-216.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Kosovo Agency of Statistics. Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2013-14, Ref. KSV_2013_MICS-RAEC_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Data collection locations
Original archive where collection stored
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.