Since its inception in 1995, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, known as MICS, has become the largest source of statistically sound and internationally comparable data on women and children worldwide. In countries as diverse as Costa Rica, Mali and Qatar, trained fieldwork teams conduct face-to-face interviews with household members on a variety of topics - focusing mainly on those issues that directly affect the lives of children and women. MICS has been a major source of data on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators and will be a major data source in the post-2015 era.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 5 (MICS5) is the fifth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), 2005-2007 (MICS3) and 2009-2011 (MICS4). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fifth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS5) is scheduled for 2013-2016 and survey results are expected to be available from 2015 onwards. Data collected in MICS5 will play a critical role in the final assessment of the MDGs in September 2015 and subsequent surveys in MICS6 will provide the baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals that will follow.
Information on more than 130 internationally agreed-upon indicators is being collected through MICS5. In addition to collecting information on intervention coverage, MICS also explores knowledge of and attitudes to certain topics, and specific behaviors of women, men and children, enabling analysts to gain insights into behaviours that may affect women's and children's lives. MICS routinely disaggregates data so that disparities associated with age, gender, education, wealth, location of residence, ethnicity and other characteristics are revealed.
The Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (PMICS) was carried out in 2014 by Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with Ministry of Health, as part of the global MICS programme. Technical and financial support was provided by the Palestinian Government, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
The global MICS programme was developed by UNICEF in the 1990s as an international household survey programme to support countries in the collection of internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators on the situation of children and women. MICS surveys measure key indicators that allow countries to generate data for use in policies and programmes, and to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments.
The Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives:
- To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action.
- To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Palestine and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
The Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2014 was conducted for a representative sample of Palestine. The survey was designed as a multi- stage cluster sample covering the entire country including two geographic regions; The West Bank which includes 11 governorates: (Jenin, Tubas, Tulkarm, Qalqiliya, Salfit, Nablus, Ramallah and Al Bireh, Jerusalem, Jericho and Al Aghwar, Bethlehem, Hebron) and Gaza Strip which includes 5 governorates (Gaza, Khan Yunis, Rafah, Deir El Balah and North Gaza) and was stratified according to urban, rural and camp areas.
Of the 11,125 households selected in the sample, results showed that the number of occupied households were 10,568 of which 10,182 households were successfully interviewed during the survey, giving a response rate of 96 percent. There were 13,964 women in the 15-49 age group of which a total of 13,367 eligible women were successfully interviewed, achieving a response rate of 96 percent. In addition, the number of children was 7,919 child in the Household Questionnaire of which a total of 7,816 child were interviewed giving a response rate of 99 percent. The total households interviewed included 56,367 individual members who were listed. Of these, 28,542 were males and 27,825 were females with a sex ratio of 103 males per hundred females.
It is noted that the Palestinian population is a young one. The percentage of individuals in the age group 0-17 years was 46 percent, whereas the percentage of individuals in the age group 18 and above was 54 percent. According to economic and social dependency categories, 39 percent individuals were in the age group 0-14 years, 58 percent in the age group 15-64 years which is the age category of economically active individuals; and 3 percent in the age group 65 years and over. The average household size in Palestine in 2014 was about 5.5 persons. About 91 percent of households are headed by men and about 9 percent of households are headed by women. The findings pertain to March-April 2014, when the fieldwork was conducted.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 includes:
- Household: List of Household Members, Education, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation and Salt Iodization;
- Women: Woman’s Background, Fertility/Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post-natal Health Checks, Contraception, Unmet Need, Marriage and HIV/AIDS;
- Children: Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
West Bank: Jenin, Tubas, Tulkarm, Qalqiliya, Salfit, Nablus, Ramallah and Al Bireh, Jerusalem, Jericho and Al Aghwar, Bethlehem, Hebron
Gaza Strip: Gaza, Khan Yunis, Rafah, Deir El Balah and North Gaza
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years and all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Health
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
United Nations Fund for Population
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Palestinian MICS was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban, rural and camps areas. Urban, rural and camps areas in each of the governorates were defined as the sampling strata.
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The sample size for the Palestinian MICS was calculated as 11,125 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was stunting prevalence among children age 0-4 years.
The number of households selected per cluster for the Palestinian MICS was determined as 25 households, based on a number of considerations, including the design effect, the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. Dividing the total number of households by the number of sample households per cluster, we obtain a sample of 445 clusters.
The 2007 census frame was used for the selection of clusters. Census enumeration areas were defined as primary sampling units (PSUs), and were selected from each of the sampling strata by using systematic pps (probability proportional to size) sampling procedures, based on the number of households in each enumeration area from the 2007 Population and Housing Census frame. The first stage of sampling was thus completed by selecting the required number of enumeration areas from each of the sixteen governorates, separately for the urban, rural and camps strata.
Since the sampling frame (the 2007 census) was not up-to-date, a listing of households was conducted in all the sample enumeration areas (EAs) prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed who visited all of the selected enumeration areas and listed all households in these enumeration areas. The listing was conducted in 416 enumeration areas; this excludes 29 sample EAs in Jerusalem within the barriers J1. A total of 266 EAs were updated in the West Bank area and 150 EAs in the Gaza Strip. A 5-day training took place during the first week of September in order to provide the fieldworkers with the skills needed for conducting the listing in the sample EAs for the Palestinian Multiple Indicator Survey 2014. The main listing field work was conducted during the period September - October, 2014.
Lists of households were prepared by the listing teams in the field for each enumeration area. The households were then sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each enumeration area) at the Central Statistical Office, where the selection of 25 households in each enumeration area was carried out using random systematic selection procedures.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 - Final Report" pp.203-207.
Of the 11,125 households selected for the sample, 10,568 were found to be occupied. Of these, 10,182 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 96.3 percent.
In the interviewed households, 13,964 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 13,367 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 95.7 percent within the interviewed households.
There were 7,919 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 7,816 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98.7 percent within interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 92.2 and 95.1 are calculated for the individual interviews of women and under-5s, respectively.
The Palestinian MICS sample is not self-weighting. Essentially, by allocating equal numbers of households to each of the regions, different sampling fractions were used in each region since the sizes of the regions varied. For this reason sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in the particular sampling stratum and PSU.
A final component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of nonresponse for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household nonresponse in each stratum is equal to: 1/RRh
where RRh is the response rate for the sample households in stratum h, defined as the proportion of the number of interviewed households in stratum h out of the number of selected households found to be occupied during the fieldwork in stratum h.
The non-response adjustment factors for the individual women, men, and under-5 questionnaires were applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the inverse of the probabilities of selection by the non-response adjustment factor for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal to the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for nonresponse) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for nonresponse). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining normalized weights for the individual women, men, and under-5 questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) household weights varied between 0.226 and 2.316 in the 445 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting households, women, or under-5s with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 28 data collection teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 16 days in February /2014. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent 2 days in practice interviewing in Jenin, Tulkarm, Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Hebron governorates in the West Bank, and Gaza, Deir El-Balah, Khan Yunis governorates in Gaza Strip.
The data were collected by 28 teams; each was comprised of 4-5 interviewers, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in March/2014 and concluded in April/2014.
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS5 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes List of Household Members, Education, Child Discipline, Household Characteristics, Water and Sanitation and Salt Iodization.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. The questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes Woman's Background, Fertility/Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post-natal Health Checks, Contraception, Unmet Need, Marriage and HIV/AIDS.
The children's questionnaire includes Child's Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake, Immunization, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 model questionnaire. From the MICS5 model English version, the questionnaires were customised and translated into Arabic and were pre-tested in December, 2013 in 4 clusters, out of each cluster 25 households were selected for interview, 25 households in Al-Bireh city and 25 households in Ramallah city (Urban), 25 households in Abu-Qash village (rural) and 25 in Al-Jalazoun refugee camp (refugee camps). The clusters were covered Ramallah governorate in the central of the West Bank. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams tested the salt used for cooking in the households for iodine content, observed the place for handwashing, and measured the weights and heights of children age under 5 years.
Data were entered using the CSPro software, Version 5.0. All the questionnaires were entered by using desktop computers, this process was done by 46 data entry operators and 2 data entry supervisors. For quality assurance purposes, all questionnaires were doubleentered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS programme and adapted to the Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in February 2014 and was completed in July 2014. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 19. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customized and used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. For survey indicators that are means, proportions or ratios, the Taylor series linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. For more complex statistics, such as fertility and mortality rates, the Jackknife repeated replications method is used for standard error estimation.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value (r) of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling based on the same sample size. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design of the survey is as efficient as a simple random sample for a particular indicator, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, programs developed in CSPro Version 5.0, SPSS Version 21 Complex Samples module and CMRJack1 have been used.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for urban, rural and camps areas and for the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Three of the selected indicators are based on households members, 10 are based on women, and 2 are based on children under 5.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Birth date reporting: Household population
- Birth date and age reporting: Women
- Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s
- Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people
- Birth date reporting: First and last births
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
- Births by periods preceding the survey
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 - Final Report" pp.218-236.
Population and Social Statistics Direcorate
Health Statistics Department
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Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Health. Palestinian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014, Ref. WBG_2014_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.