The Somaliland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a household survey programme conducted in 2011 by Somaliland Ministry of Planning and National Development. Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The field work implementation was supported by the African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN).
MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Somaliland MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). It provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments.
The Somaliland Multiple Indicator Survey is a representative sample survey of 4,924 households, out which 4,820 were successfully interviewed, 5,865 women age 15 – 49 and 4,672 children age less than five years. The primary purpose of MICS is to provide policy makers and planners with reliable and detailed information needed to monitor the situation of women and children. It also provides information on child mortality, nutrition, child health, water and sanitation, reproductive health, child development, literacy and education, child protection, HIV/AIDS and orphan hood and access to mass media and use of information/communication technology.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
Unit of analysis
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Somaliland Ministry of National Planning and Development
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Somaliland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators for the whole Somaliland, for urban and rural areas, and for the five regions (Maroodijeex/Sahil, Awdal, Togdheer, Sool and Sanaag) of the country. There were two main sampling strata: rural and urban areas.
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Somaliland MICS was calculated as 5179 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the polio immunization coverage for children aged 12 – 23 months.
The sampling frame was the list of settlements obtained from the 2005/2006 UNDP settlement census and which was updated in preparation for the Somalia population estimation survey. For each settlement, this list contained an estimated number of households and the classification by urban and rural.
Stratification consisted of separating urban and rural settlements within each region. Settlements were then used as primary sampling units and were selected with probability proportional to size, the size being the estimated number of households. Very large settlements were selected with certainty as selfrepresenting units (that is with probability equal to 1).
In rural areas and small towns, settlements with more than 200 households were divided into segments of which one was randomly selected. All households in the selected segment were listed to create a frame for the selection of 18 households at the second stage using systematic sampling.
For very large settlements, the list of villages and sections that comprised each settlement served as frame for the second stage selection (secondary sampling units). Each selected village and section was segmented if it contained more 200 households. One of the newly created segments was then randomly selected and all of the households it contained were listed. In the final stage, 18 households were selected from the household listing. In villages and sections containing 200 households or less, a complete household listing was carried out and 18 households were directly selected from the list of households.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 - Final Report" pp.117-118.
Of the 4,924 households selected for the sample, 4,900 were found to be occupied. Of these, 4,820 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 98.4 percent. In the interviewed households, 6,650 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 5,865 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 88.2 percent within interviewed households. There were 4,772 children under age five listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 4,672 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 97.9 percent within interviewed households. Overall response rates of 86.8 and 96.3 are calculated for the women’s and under-5’s interviews respectively.
The sample for Somaliland was implemented according to its design. However, information on segmentation was not systematically captured at the field level for most of the clusters. As a result, information was incomplete for most clusters. Based on this finding, it was decided not to calculate the weights at cluster level. The sampling weights were calculated at stratum level.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in a particular sampling stratum
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of:
RRh = Number of interviewed households in stratum h/ Number of occupied households listed in stratum h
After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each stratum.
Similarly, the adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women and under-5 children) for each stratum is equal to the inverse value of:
RRh = Completed women’s (or under-5’s) questionnaires in stratum h / Eligible women (or under-5s) in stratum h
The non-response adjustment factors for women’s and under-5’s questionnaires were applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The sample weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each stratum. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is performed by by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for nonresponse). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the women’s and under-5’s questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied between 0.81 and 1.12.
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman or under-5 with these sample weights.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
There is one supervisor for each of the 10 data collection teams in the field.
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS4 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes Household Listing Form, Education, Non Formal Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Insecticide Treated Nets, Indoor Residual Spraying, Child Labour, Child Discipline and Handwashing.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes Women's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Child Mortality with Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, and HIV/AIDS.
The children's questionnaire includes Child's age, Early childhood development, Breastfeeding, Care of illness, Malaria and Immunization.
The questionnaires are based on the MICS4 model questionnaire4. From the MICS4 model English version, the questionnaires were translated into Somali and were pre-tested in Gabilely, Hargeisa during February 2011. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams observed the place for handwashing.
The following modules were removed from the three sets of questionnaires each for the given reason. In the household questionnaire;
- Salt iodisation module was removed because here is more recent data from the Micronutrient Survey of 2009.
In the questionnaire for women 15- 49 years;
- Sexual behaviour module was not included as it was considered culturally sensitive in Somalia. Furthermore, it was not included in the 2006 MICS.
In the questionnaire for children under five years;
- Birth registration was omitted based on observations in MICS3 that there are very few births registered in Somaliland as most women gave birth at home.
- The anthropometry module was excluded as there was more recent data in the micronutrient survey.
The following additions were made to the modules for specific questionnaires;
In the questionnaire for children under five years
- In the immunisation module, treatment of diarrhoea using ORS distributed in the most recent Child Health Days i.e. December 2010, was added
- In the same module, the type of card in which child immunisation was recorded included additional type of cards from the 2009 and 2010 child health days.
In the household questionnaire
- The Non Formal Education module was added. It was considered necessary in order to provide information given the continued intervention by the government, with support from partners, in Non Formal Education.
African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect
Somaliland Ministry of National Planning and Development
Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data were entered on 12 computers and carried out by 12 data entry operators under one data entry supervisor and one data manager. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to the Somaliland questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in June 2011 and was completed in September 2011. Data for fifteen clusters had been collected in late May 2011 by the teams from Puntland. The consequence is that these clusters had to be entered (which was delayed until October) by the Puntland team before they were merged with the Somaliland data. Data were then analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose.
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 per cent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the regions. One of the indicators is based on households, 8 selected indicators are based on household members, 20 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
Other forms of data appraisal
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Women’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Observation of bednets and places for hand washing
- Observation of women's health cards
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 2–14 years for the child discipline module
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 - Final Report" pp.147-158.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Somaliland Ministry of National Planning and Development. Somalia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland (MICS) 2011, Ref. SOM_2011_MICS-S_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Data collection locations
Original archive where collection stored
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.