CGAP Financial Diaries with Smallholder Households 2014-2015
Other Household Survey
The study was conducted in 3 countries: Mozambique, Tanzania, and Pakistan.
In order to elucidate the financial lives of smallholder households and build the evidence base on this important client group, Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) of the World Bank launched the year-long Financial Diaries with Smallholder Families (the "Smallholder Diaries"). The study captured the financial and in-kind transactions of 270 households in Tanzania, Pakistan and Mozambique, of which 94 households are in the Punjab province, the breadbasket of Pakistan. The sample was drawn from 2 villages in Pakistan. Villages were selected based on their involvement in agriculture, and convenience in reaching them. Between June 2014 and July 2015, enumerators visited sample families every fortnight to conduct comprehensive face-to-face interviews to track all the money flowing into and out of their households.
Kind of Data
Event/Transaction data [evn]
Unit of Analysis
The main unit for data collection for transactions was the household. However, each income source and financial instrument was ascribed to a specific household member during the initial questionnaire. Thus all transactions associated with that instrument or income source are registered under its owner. Similarly, transactions related to expenses were individually attributed to the member who initiated the respective transaction.
There was a small number of cash flows where the interviewer was not able to unambiguously identify the initiating household member. In these cases, the cash flow was recorded as belonging to the entire household (in the dataset the member ID field would be blank).
Analysis can be performed at two different levels of aggregation:
a) The household itself
b) Individual household members
In our study the household is defined as including those who consistently share financial resources, live together, share the same cooking arrangement, and report to the same household head. This includes babies, children, people who travel for work or school during the week and consider the household to be their main residence. However, the definition does not include people who are currently spending an extended period of time away from the household, including college students, students away at boarding school, military personnel, people in prison, or people who live in the house but maintain completely separate expenses (e.g. roommates, other families).
Version 2.1: Edited, anonymized dataset for public distribution
HOUSEHOLD AND MEMBER-LEVEL INFORMATION:
Cash flows file: Financial inflows and outflows
Demographics file: Gender, age, marital status, school enrollment, highest level of education, native language, whether they can read/ write.
In Pakistan, the Smallholder Diaries were conducted in Bahawalnagar, southern Punjab, within the country's breadbasket. Rice, wheat, and cotton are commonly grown and typically sold through a network of local commission agents (known as arthis) and village traders. Given the dominance of agricultural middlemen in Pakistan, two villages in the district of Bahawalnagar were selected as representative of an area with relatively looser connections to agricultural value chains and middlemen.
Once the villages for the Smallholder Diaries were selected, the research teams used a screening process to help identify a range of families with 5 acres of land or less, diverse income sources, access to agricultural inputs, wealth levels, and crops to participate in the research.
In Pakistan, the sample was selected using a traditional screener survey with questions related to household demographics, crops and livestock, main income sources, and wealth indicators, administered to all households in the selected villages. As a supplement to this process, village leaders and community representatives were consulted to help ensure local participation and eliminate households with large landholdings.
Producers and sponsors
World Bank Group
Bankable Frontier Associates
Bankable Frontier Associates
The methodology and sample size of the Smallholder Diaries was designed to generate a rich pool of detailed information and insights on a targeted population. The Smallholder Diaries are not intended to be statistically representative of smallholder families in participating countries.
Total number of households in sample: 93 (Mozambique); 86 (Tanzania); 94 (Pakistan). The sample came was drawn from 3 villages in Mozambique, 2 villages in Tanzania, and 2 villages in Pakistan. Villages were selected based on their involvement in agriculture, and convenience in reaching them.
The research teams used a screening process to help identify a range of families with 5 acres of land or less, diverse income sources, access to agricultural inputs, wealth levels, and crops to participate in the research. In Pakistan, the sample was selected using a traditional screener survey with questions related to household demographics, crops and livestock, main income sources, and wealth indicators, administered to all households in the selected villages. As a supplement to this process, village leaders and community representatives were consulted to help ensure local participation and eliminate households with large landholdings, harvests per year, use of inputs, and integration with local markets and a variety of families were chosen.
In Pakistan, the sample was selected using a traditional screener survey with questions related to household demographics, crops and livestock, main income sources, and wealth indicators. As a supplement to this process, village leaders and community representatives were consulted to help ensure local ownership and eliminate households with large landholdings.
The sample initially included 286 households in all three countries, and the study ended with 273 households in total – an attrition rate similar to what has been observed in the past in similar Financial Diaries exercises. Households left the study due to moving from the study villages, seasonal migration, and occasionally by the prompting of the research team due to concerns about the household’s willingness to be forthcoming about important sources of income.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Each county research team was organized as follows: A Country Project Manager from BFA directly supervised a Research Manager from the in-country teams. The Research Manager in turn supervised a data analyst and three to five field interviewers.
CGAP retained the services of Bankable Frontier Associates (BFA) to manage the Smallholder Diaries. For in-country data collection, BFA worked with International Capital Corporation in Mozambique, Digital Divide Data in Tanzania, and RCons in Pakistan. The core team included a Project Manager from BFA to manage the overall study; a Country Project Manager from BFA for each specific country. The in-country data collection teams consisted of a Research Manager, Data Analyst, and field interviewers. The main responsibility of the research manager was to manage the Field Researchers and the Data Analyst in order to ensure high data quality throughout the course of the Smallholder Diaries project.
The data analyst’s primary role was to manage the Smallholder Diaries database, including set-up and quality control through the data collection process. This included:
• Testing the database on tablet computers
• Helping to train field researchers on how to input data on the tablets
• Checking and verifying data throughout the project
• Downloading data from the database and analyzing it, either in Excel, Stata, or another program
• Supporting field researchers when they have questions about data entry
• Providing feedback and solving problems to enable the work of the researchers
The primary responsibilities of the field interviewers (three to five per country) was to interview households about their spending, income, and financial behaviors approximately every two weeks over the course of 12 months. Beyond simply conducting the interview, the researchers needed to manage relationships with these households, whom they saw on a regular basis. The interviewers were responsible for entering data into tablet computers and verifying that data is accurate. Specific duties included:
• Attending three trainings on the Financial Diaries methodology
• Helping to recruit smallholder families to participate in the year-long study.
• Carrying out three initial questionnaires with the selected households
• Visiting the households approximately every 14 days to carry out a 45-75 min survey about the cash flows of the household
• Inputting data into the database through the tablet computer.
• Syncing data to be stored to the database server daily.
• Carefully checking and verifying data and work with the data analyst and making corrections.
• Encouraging households to continue to participate in the research for the duration of the project.
• Discretely administering monetary gifts that will be given to the households.
• Treating the households with respect and empathy, while not intervening in ways that would change their financial behaviors.
• Participating in regular team calls to share experiences and update on findings.
Data Collection Notes
Field enumerators went through a training process. Interviews were conducted about every two weeks and lasted for about an hour each time. Interviews were conducted in the local languages in each village, but recorded in the database as follows: Urdu for the Pakistan data.
All data, including the initial questionnaires, were collected between April 2014 and June 2015. Data collection on household cash flows started in June 2014 and ended in June 2015. The timeframes for observations are not exactly the same for every sample and household. In some areas and with some households, the Smallholder Diaries started slightly earlier than others.
Bankable Frontier Associates
Interviewers visited each household and conducted three initial questionnaires. They 1) collected a household roster and demographic information about household members; 2) captured a register of physical assets and income sources for each household member and 3) registered the unique financial instruments used by each household member. This baseline information was then used to generate a custom cash flows questionnaire for each household, built to collect income, expenditure, and financial transactions for each individual. This customized cash flows questionnaire was then used for the collection of cash flows data. During regular visits about every two weeks, interviewers captured a complete set of daily, individual transactions from the preceding two-week period. Households were asked only about transactions using financial instruments and income sources that they actually have, rather than going through a generic list of questions. However, the cash flows questionnaire was continuously updated as new members joined the household, members acquired new financial instruments or income sources, or as the interviewers became aware of previously undisclosed ones.
All data editing was done manually.
The data was collected through face to face interviews, using a computer tablet preloaded with the data collection software and all previously recorded data. The tablets were synchronized each day so that all collected data was uploaded to the server and the tablet would receive the latest version of the database.
World Bank Group
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Bank. Pakistan Financial Diaries with Smallholder Households 2014-2015. Ref. PAK_2014_FDSH_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
Rights and Permissions This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0) http://creativecommons .org/licenses/by/3.0. Attribution—Cite the work as follows: Anderson, Jamie, and Wajiha Ahmed. 2016. "Smallholder Financial Diaries Datasets." Washington, D.C.: CGAP. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to CGAP Publications, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN IS7-700, Washington, DC 20433 USA; e-mail: cgap@world bank.org.