WSP Global Scaling up Handwashing Behavior Impact Evaluation 2009-2011
Baseline and Endline Surveys
Hygiene information and practices play a critical role in preventing diseases, particularly among children. Hygiene behaviors practiced in the household have been linked to development outcomes such as socio-emotional skills. The WSP Global Scaling up Handwashing Behavior Impact Evaluation (WSPIE) 2009-2011 was conducted in Senegal, where the randomized design suffered from contamination between comparison groups. The variations in exposure and intensity to hygiene information campaigns captured in the surveys were used to understand contamination biases. Such variations were interacted with the presence of household communication assets to explore potential effects on children’s socio-emotional scores. In the presence of contamination biases, the study exploited the longitudinal sample of children in the surveys to reduce time-dependent biases. For robustness, statistical matching was applied between the impact evaluation surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. Socio-emotional outcomes were the imputed into Demographic and Health surveys to expand sample sizes. By applying matching techniques and imputing outcomes into a larger sample, impacts were non-negligible. Double-difference estimates showed that children’s socio-emotional scores were higher when intervention status was interacted with the presence of communication assets within households. Without the presence of communication assets in the households the impacts were close to zero. Evaluating the effect of hygiene campaigns on children’s socio-emotional skills is challenging because of the biases from contamination that exist when information flows between comparison groups. Targeted hygiene information to the poorest households is relevant for reducing risks of recurrent infections and enables better conditions for socio-emotional development of children.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Version 1.0: The study includes information on the baseline and endline surveys.
The survey was undertaken in the commune (clusters). But as this is an impact evaluation, this is not a nationally representative statistic.
Unit of analysis
Child (under 5 and under 2)
Producers and sponsors
Inter-American Development Bank
Water and Sanitation Program
National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Implemented the baseline survey
Data reduction endline
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Primary funding source for the impact evaluation
The sampling framework included three stages. In the first stage, the collectivités locales (urban and rural communes) were selected. The selection of collectivités locales was drawn from the universe of urban communes and communautés rurales included in the four selected regions. Two collectivités locales-Commune de Thiès and Touba Mosquée-were excluded from the sampling universe for being larger than the rest (Touba Mosquée was close to 500,000 residents and Commune de Thiès was around 250,000 residents; the population of the next seven largest cities was between 171,000 and 113,000); from the remaining list there was a random selection from the largest collectivités locales. The second stage involved sample cluster selection. The selection of clusters or Census Districts was drawn from the universe of clusters. The last stage of the sampling framework involved household selection. The selection of households was randomly drawn among all households within the selected clusters that had at least one child less than two years of age, and was proportional to the number of households per cluster.
The randomized assignment of comunes was done at the locality level, and it included 110 urban and rural (cluster) villages randomly selected (55 for treatment and 55 for control) among eligible localites distributed across 7 of the 11 regions of Senegal. The evaluation design objective was to test whether handwashing behavior can be improved among the poor through the use of promotional strategies, and assess the effectiveness of the program at improving the health of the population at risk of diarrhea, and incidence of sanitation-related diseases. The program targeted a population of mothers and other caregivers between the ages of 19-49 and infants up to 13 years of age, living in urban and rural areas of the country, with the main objective of delivering the information campaign and hygiene promotion contents to the "stewards" of child health within the household.
While the intervention was designed to improve the health and hygiene practices of the treatment population, the intervention also collected data on children's health and mental development. Taking this information, children's mental development was analyzed using the data collected during the program. Hygiene practices within the household may impact child's mental development through different channels, such as nutrition, health, and high-quality supportive environments. The last channel includes mothers' behavior on health and nutrition, as these factors make mothers more responsive with the child's environment and his/her cognitive and socio-emotional development.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (Baseline Survey)
The data files as they are output in CSPro follow the hierarchical structure as established in the data dictionary. These however may not be convenient for the analyst. The WSP requested that the files be integrated into various record level files. The files that are included in the final data base reflect this structure.
However, some analysts may still want the hierarchical level data available in its original record form (as it was during data entry). For that reason, these files are also zipped together and provided in the event that they are desired.
The final data files are provided in STATA format as requested by the WSP.
Although there was no formal or independent appraisal of the data, an appraisal was undertaken when the data files for: Peru, India and Vietnam were prepared for a WSP presentation in Mexico. These data were presented in a public forum and scrutinized by various analysts. There was a process of feeding back information which helped correct or format or revise the data.
Water and Sanitation Program
Water and Sanitation Program
Access authority is defined in a policy document entitled: WSP Data Access Policy. This document is attached. However, the following is provided from the data access policy:
To access data, team members must complete a Data Access Request Form (attached). Although team members may already have physical access to a particular dataset, they are expected to complete a Data Access Request Form (attached) if they intend to conduct a new analysis and/or prepare a new abstract, conference presentation, or manuscript.
All Data Access Request Forms should be submitted to Bertha Briceno (email@example.com). In the event that Bertha is unavailable, the data access request form should be submitted to Alex Orsola-Vidal (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Once the data access request form is submitted and approved, Bertha or Alex will facilitate the team member's access to the necessary data. WSP will strive to centralize storage of the latest datasets for analysis by all team members. Until WSP centralizes data storage, the individual Country PIs will be able to distribute the latest datasets for their respective countries.
The responsible team member must ensure that data are not distributed to anyone other than researchers listed on the Data Access Request Form.
The following team members will have access to data upon request and approval of the Data Access Request Form (attached).
• Country PIs
• Global experts
• WSP team
• Students or trainees of country PIs, global experts, or WSP team members will have access to data only after the supervising PI, global expert, or WSP team member complies with the process described here, including submitting the student's signed request for data access and agreement to comply with authorship and publication guidelines described. It is the supervising team member's responsibility to ensure that the student comply with all guidelines contained within this document.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. Senegal WSP Global Scaling up Handwashing Behavior Impact Evaluation, Baseline and Endline Surveys 2009-2011. Ref. SEN_2009-2011_WSPIE_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [website/source] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
WSP is a multi-donor partnership created in 1978 and administered by the World Bank to support poor people in obtaining affordable, safe, and sustainable access to water and sanitation services. WSP's donors include Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and the World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the Water and Sanitation Program, the World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.
Inter-American Development Bank
Compiled the DDI
Water and Sanitation Project
Reviewed content of the DDI
Version 02 (July 2012). Edited version based on Version 01 DDI (DDI-WSP-SNM-IE2009-2011) that was done by Kimetrica International and reviewed by Water and Sanitation Project.