The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5), is the fifth round of MICS surveys. MICS was developed by UNICEF in the 1990s as an international household survey program to collect internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators on the situation of children and women.
MICS plays a critical role in informing national policies such as the Sudan Strategic Plan (2012-2016) and the sector strategic plans of health, education, and water and sanitation. It also serves as an instrument to measure progress towards the achievement of national and international commitments for children and women wellbeing (MDG2015, SDG 2030).
The objective of this report is to facilitate the timely dissemination and use of key results (national averages) from the Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), 2014 prior to the release of full tables and the final analytical report that contain detailed information on all survey findings by state level, various demographic, social, economic and cultural characteristics. Results related to food security are analyzed and presented within the final full report. The final survey report was expected to be released in July 2015.
The Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), was conducted from August to December 2014 at national level covering all eighteen states. The MICS was designed to collect information on a variety of socioeconomic and health indicators required to inform the planning, implementation and monitoring of national policies and programs for the enhancement of the welfare of women and children.
The survey was carried out by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) in collaboration with the ministries of health, welfare, general education, national environment, and national water cooperation as part of the global MICS program. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). UNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), World Food Program (WFP) and the Department for International Development (DfID) UK, provided financial support.
MICS surveys measure key indicators that allow countries to generate accurate evidence for use in policies and programs, and to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. The Sudan Multiple Indicator Survey is a nationally representative sample survey. Interviews were successfully completed in 15,801 households drawn from a sample of 18,000 households in all 18 states of Sudan with an overall response rate of 98 percent. 20,327 women in the 15-49 years age group, and 14,751 children under 5 years of age. The specific objectives of the survey is to:
1. Update information for assessing the situation of children and women in Sudan based on MICS5 modules and geographical coverage of the 18 States in Sudan.
2. Measure the trend towards achievement of the MDGs and the goals of a World Fit For Children Plan of Action and other internationally agreed upon indicators related to children and women.
3. Furnish data needed for the indicators as per the global review of the Millennium Development Goals.
4. Contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Sudan and to strengthen technical expertise, national capacity building in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
5. Update Census indicators and provide solid evidence for decentralization (planning and measure of progress).
6. Provide key evidence for social sector programming and the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) under development and accountabilities for sector strategic plans and UNDAF 2013-2016.
Results presented in this survey have been reviewed by the national MICS Technical Committee and approved by the national MICS Steering Committee. The results are not expected to change and are considered final.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household information panel
- List of household members
- Child labor
- Child discipline
- Water and sanitation
- Hand washing
- Salt iodization
- Food consumption and sources
- Coping strategies
- Women's information panel
- Women's background
- Fertility/birth history
- Desire for last birth
- Maternal and new-born health
- Post-natal health checks
- Unmet needs
- Female genital mutilation/cutting
- Attitudes toward domestic violence
- Mid Upper Arm Circumference (Muac)
- Hemoglobin testing (Anemia)
CHILDREN UNDER 5:
- Under five child information panel
- Birth registration
- Early childhood development
- Breastfeeding and dietary intake
- Care of illness
- Hemoglobin testing (anemia)
The survey covered all women aged between 15-49 years and all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
Government of Sudan
United Nations Children’s Fund
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
World Health Organization
United Nations Population Fund
World Food Program
Department for International Development
The primary objective of the sample design for the Sudan MICS 2014 was to produce statistically reliable estimates for a large number of indicators at the national level. This included urban and rural areas and the eighteen states of the country namely: Northern, River Nile, Red Sea, Kassala, Gadaraf, Khartoum, Gezira, Sinnar, Blue Nile, White Nile, North Kordofan, South Kordofan, North Darfur, West Darfur, South Darfur, and the recent established West Kordofan, Eastern Darfur and Central Darfur.
In order to produce state level estimates of moderate precision, a minimum of 30 enumeration areas (EAs) were selected in each state, resulting in a sample that was not self-weighting. Urban and rural areas in each of the eighteen states were defined as the sampling strata and a multi two-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
In the first stage within each stratum, a specified number of EAs were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. In the second stage, after a household listing was carried out within the selected enumeration areas, a systematic sample of 25 households was drawn in each selected EA.
Out of the 18,000 households selected in the sample, 17,142 were found to be occupied. Of these 16,801 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 98 percent. In the interviewed households 20,327 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these 18,302 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 90 percent. In addition to the women 14,751 children under the age of five years were listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 14,081 of these children, corresponding to the under-5 response rates of 95.5 percent within the interviewed households. The highest response rates at state level for households was in South Darfur at 99.3 percent, while the lowest response rates were in West Kordofan at 93.4 percent. Response rates were slightly higher in rural areas at 98.5 percent than in urban areas at 96.8 percent. The highest response rates among eligible women between 15-49 years was 96.6 percent in Giezera State while the lowest response rates of 78.1 percent were in North Darfur. Similarly, the highest response rates among eligible children under-5 was recorded for Giezera which was 96.9 percent and the lowest response rates was also in North Darfur at 87.9 percent.
The Sudan MICS 2014 was based on a representative sample of 15,801 households drawn from a sample 18,000 households. All 18 states of Sudan with an overall response rate of 98 percent.
The Sudan MICS 2014 sample is not self-weighting. By allocating equal numbers of households to each of the states, different sampling fractions were used in each state since the sizes of the states varied. For this reason sample weights were calculated and were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling stratum (h) and PSU (i). Since the number of households in each enumeration area (PSU) from the 2008 census frame used for the first stage selection and the updated number of households in the enumeration area from the listing are generally different, individual overall probabilities of selection for households in each sample enumeration area (cluster) were calculated.
A final component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response in each stratum is equal to: 1/RRh. where RRh is the response rate for the sample households in stratum h, defined as the proportion of the number of interviewed households in stratum h out of the number of selected households found to be occupied during the fieldwork in stratum h.
Similarly, adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women, men, and under-5 children) for each stratum is equal to: 1/RRh. The non-response adjustment factors for the individual women, men, and under-5 questionnaires were applied to the adjusted household weights.
Numbers of eligible women, men, and children under-5 were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed. The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the inverse of the probabilities of selection by the non-response adjustment factor for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal to the unweighted number of observations the national level.
Normalization is achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for non -response) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for non-response).
A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the individual women, men, and the under-5 questionnaires. Adjusted (Normalized) weights varied between lowest weight and highest weight in the 720 sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting households, women, men, or under 5s with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Central Bureau of Statistics
Government of Sudan
Three types of questionnaires were used in the survey:
1. Household Questionnaire: It was used to collect information on all de jure household members, the household, and the dwelling
2. Women Questionnaire: It was administered in each household to all women aged 15-49 years
3. Children under five Questionnaire: It was administered to mothers or caretakers of all children under 5 years living in the household.
Data were entered into the computers using the Census and Surveys Processing System (CSPro) software package, Version 5.0. The data were entered on 32 desktop computers by 40 data entry operators and 9 data entry supervisors. For quality assurance purposes, all questionnaires were double-entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS programs and adapted to the Sudan questionnaires were used throughout. Data of entry started on September 14 and was completed on November 27 2014. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 21. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by the Global MICS team were customized and used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
MICS 2014 was conducted in a very challenging context of ongoing long term armed conflicts and many displacements of populations prevailing in Darfur and Kordofan states as well as the outstanding high risk mining areas. A very large sample design was defined for MICS 2014 in Sudan. It comprised of 720 Clusters (40 per state), 18,000 Households (1,000 per state) in order to ensure adequate representation of statistical estimation by each state.
During the implementation of the field data collection, the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) was constrained to proceed to the replacement of 22 clusters among 720 sampled for the survey (which represented 3%).The maximum number of clusters were replaced within states in four clusters in the Red Sea, West Kordofan, East Darfur and Central Darfur. This was in addition to the two clusters in Kassala and one cluster each in South Darfur, West Darfur, Khartoum and Gedaref. The main reason for the replacement of clusters was as follows:
1. Insecurity in Darfur States
2. Mining area in Kassala State
3. The displacement of population in the Red Sea
4. The rainy season in Gadaref State
CBS benefited from solid expertise of consulting in sampling and developed adequate technical measures by providing the field work team leader. Clear instructions enabled to perform the replacement in close compliance to the statistical practice of replacement of the enumeration area by choosing the nearest accessible area using a list of frame in respect to urban and rural areas. Taking into account the provisional measure of sample design which included 10 percent of “non-respondents rate” and the expansion of initial calculated required sample from 930 clusters to 1,000. Any anticipated error which may have emerged from the replacements was fully absorbed. Indicators measured for MICS 2014 in Sudan were not affected by the replacement of 22 clusters (from 1 to 4 into some states).
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United Nations Children's Fund, Central Bureau of Statistics. Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014, Ref. SDN_2014_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
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