Cross-border trade was identified by the World Bank in 2011 as important for economic growth in fragile and in-conflict countries. Small-scale traders across the DRC-Rwanda border, 90% of which were women, had a poor access to information on tariffs and legal procedures, were forced to pay bribes in cash or in-kind, and were subjected to sexual gender-based violence incidents. Among the recommendations made by the World Bank, there was the need for training of border officials and traders, institutional reforms, and a strengthened voice for traders. In this regard, the World Bank funded a multi-component project "Improving the conditions of cross-border traders in the Great Lakes region of Africa," which was implemented by the NGO International Alert from March 2012 to July 2013.
The DRC-Rwanda Cross-Border Trade Impact Evaluation focused on the effects of the training, under Component 2 "Empowerment of small-scale traders (via increased knowledge and understanding of regulations and rights and establishment and strengthening of associations/cooperatives)," of the larger project. It was a randomized individual trader-level assignment of 628 traders to treatment (training) and control. There were two rounds of survey data collection conducted by The Catholic University of Bukavu and IPSOS in 2011 and 2013. From the (unpublished) results, there was a potential reduction in sexual and gender-based violence (fewer traders insulted or spit upon), with no increase in "unofficial" fees to border officials. There also was a possible drop in corruption (fee-asking by border officials) emerging from the participation of border officials in the trader's training. Savings from trading activity also seemed to increase for small-scale cross-border traders.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The dataset covers the Great Lakes zone, specifically North-Kivu and South-Kivu provinces in Democratic Republic of Congo (represented by three fourths of the sample) and the border region in Rwanda (represented by one fourth of the sample).
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
The World Bank
The World Bank
A trader roster has been made available through the listing of traders at border crossings to identify 628 traders (90% female), from which 314 initially randomly selected to be trained and 314 selected to not receive the training.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
3- Midline demographics
4- Housing and assets
5- Midline expenditures
8- Midline trade
9- Border conditions and negotiations
10- Midline Border Conditions and negotiations
11- Business skills and financial literacy
12- Midline Skills and Financial Literacy
14- Midline conflict
16- Midline harassment
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
Kevin Croke, Markus Goldstein, and Michael O'Sullivan, World Bank. DRC-Rwanda Cross Border Trader Impact Evaluation (CBTIE-BL) 2010, Ref. AFR_2010_CBTIE-BL_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.