The TKAPS is a follow-up to the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) which was implemented by the same organizations. The TKAPS differed from the TDHS in that it was implemented on a smaller sample and did not include a birth history or questions on health. The main purpose of the TKAPS was to produce up-to-date estimates of contraceptive knowledge and use that could be used to evaluate the USAID-funded Family Planning Services Support project. Another objective of the survey was to provide data on general knowledge about AIDS.
More specifically, the primary objective of the TKAPS is to provide information on awareness, approval, and use of family planning methods; unmet need for family planning services; fertility preferences; nuptiality; and knowledge regarding AIDS. This information is intended to assist policymakers and administrators in evaluating and designing programmes and strategies for improving family planning services and AIDS programs in the country.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-59
- HIV Behavior
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Men's Survey
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Statistics
Macro international Inc.
United States Agency for International Development - Tanzania
Sample Design and Implementation
The sample for the 1994 TKAPS was national in scope, with the exclusion of only Zanzibar. In order to maximize efficiency and enhance the measurement of trends, sample points for the TKAPS were selected from those which had been chosen for the 1991/92 TDHS. The TDHS sample was a three-stage design, consisting of wards/branches at the first stage, census enumeration areas (EAs) at the second stage, and households at the third stage. Of the total of 357 EAs used in the TDHS, 203-57 urban and 146 rural were selected for the TKAPS.
The ratio of the sub-selection of TKAPS sample points from TDHS sample points was not uniform across the country. Although the TKAPS sample size was too small to obtain separate estimates for each of Tanzania's 20 mainland regions, estimates of most variables were obtained for groups of regions.
Regions were grouped into three geographically contiguous zones, as follows:
Coastal Zone: Tanga, Coast, Dares Salaam, Lindi, Mtwara, Ruvuma, and Morogoro;
Central Zone: Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Singida, Dodoma, Iringa, and Mbeya; and
Western Zone: Kagera, Mwanza, Mara, Shinyanga, Tabora, Rukwa, and Kigoma.
Based on TDHS results, the three zones correspond to medium, high and low contraceptive prevalence rates, respectively. Moreover, to meet the secondary objective of the TKAPS, namely to provide data on AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviour, it was decided to provide separate estimates of certain variables for Mwanza, Dodoma, lringa and Dares Salaam regions. Thus, the TKAPS sample over-selected EAs from the TDHS for these four regions relative to the other regions, such that there would be an expected minimum of 350 women interviewed in each. Whereas in the other regions, one-half of the selected households were designated for the men's survey, in these four regions, all households were selected for both the women's and men's surveys. Due to the oversampling of households in certain regions, the TKAPS sample is not self-weighting at the national level; consequently, the data presented in this report have been weighted to compensate.
After the selection of the TKAPS sample points, field staff from the Bureau of Statistics conducted a household listing operation in May and June 1994. A systematic sample of households was then selected from these lists, with an average "take" of 22 households in both urban and rural clusters for an expected total of about 4,466 households selected. As already mentioned, every second household was identified as selected for the male survey, meaning that, in addition to interviewing all women age 15-49, interviewers were also to interview all men age 15-59; in Dodoma, Iringa and Dares Salaam regions, all selected households were eligible for the male survey. 4 It was expected that the sample would yield interviews with approximately 4,500 women age 15-49 and over 2,500 men age 15-59.
A total of 4,496 dwelling units was selected from the household listings for the sample, from which 4,023 households were successfully interviewed. The shortfall is primarily due to dwellings that were vacant or in which the inhabitants had left for an extended period at the time they were visited by the interviewing teams. Of the 4,134 households encountered, 97 percent were successfully interviewed. In these households, 4,444 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview and interviews were completed for 4,225 or 95 percent of these. In those households that were selected for inclusion in the men's survey, 2,447 eligible men were identified, of which 2,097 or 86 percent were interviewed.
The principal reason for non-response among eligible women and men was the failure to find them at home despite repeated visits to the household. The refusal rate was low (less than 1 percent among both women and men).
Note: See summarized responses rate by urban/rural in Table 1.1 which is provided in this documentation.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training and Field Work
Given that the questionnaires were so similar to those used in the 1991/92 TDHS and that they were printed in only one language (Kiswahili), the pretest of the TKAPS questionnaires was not extensive. In March 1994, several permanent staff of the Bureau of Statistics conducted a small pretest in one urban and one rural area, after which they all met to make revisions in the questionnaires and translations.
Bureau of Statistics staff recruited candidates for field staff positions for the main survey. Recruitment criteria included educational attainment, maturity, ability to spend up to three months on the survey, and experience in other surveys.
Training for the main survey was conducted in Iringa for two weeks from 27 June to 9 July. Staffs of the Bureau of Statistics were assigned to conduct the training with assistance from the Macro Country Monitor. Fifty-six trainees participated in the training course, of which six were trained as supervisors, six as field editors, and 44 as interviewers.
Training consisted mostly of lectures on how to fill in the questionnaires and mock interviews between participants. Later, participants conducted field practice interviewing in the community using the whole questionnaire. Periodic tests were administered to evaluate the training. Supervisors and field editors received special training in questionnaire editing.
Trainees who performed satisfactorily in the training programme were selected as interviewers, while those whose performance was rated as superior were selected as field editors. Supervisors were full-time staff from the Bureau of Statistics.
The field work for the TKAPS was carried out by 6 interviewing teams. Each consisted of one supervisor, one field editor, 5 female interviewers, 2 male interviewers and one driver; however, in the regions in which all households qualified for the men's survey, each team had 5 female and 3 male interviewers. Each team was provided a vehicle and a driver. Field work commenced on 13 July and was completed on 22 September 1994.
Bureau of Statistics
Three types of questionnaires were used for the TKAPS: a Household Questionnaire, a Women's Questionnaire, and a Men's Questionnaire. The contents of these questionnaires were based on the DHS Model B Questionnaire, as well as on the questionnaires used in the TDHS. As mentioned above, the birth history section and the sections on maternal and child health and nutrition were omitted from the TKAPS. Contents of the questionnaires were discussed with staff from the Family Planning Unit, the National AIDS Control Programme, the Institute of Public Health, the UNFPA, and USAID/Tanzania. The questionnaires were developed in English and then translated into and printed in Kiswahili.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors of selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including his/her age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for individual interview. In addition, information was collected about the dwelling itself, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used to construct the house, and ownership of various consumer goods.
The Women's Questionnaire was used to collect information from women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics:
Background characteristics (age, education, religion, etc.),
Total number of children born,
Knowledge and use of family planning methods,
Husband's background and respondent's work, and
Awareness of AIDS.
The Men's Questionnaire contained most of the same questions as the Women's Questionnaire. Men were eligible if they were 15-59.
All questionnaires for the TKAPS were returned to the Census Office in Dares Salaam for data processing. The processing operation consisted of office editing, coding of open-ended questions, data entry, and editing of errors found by the computer programs. Bureau of Statistics staff were responsible for the data processing operation. The data were processed on 5 microcomputers, two of which were supplied specifically for the TKAPS survey. The DHS data entry and editing programs were written in ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). Data processing commenced on 8 August and was completed by 23 November 1994.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) non-sampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the TKAP to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the TKAPS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the TKAPS sample is the result of a two-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the TKAPS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module (ISSAS). This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jacknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed sampling error calculation in the APPENDIX B of the final report which is presented in this documentation.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
Note: See these data quality tables in APPENDIX C of the final report.
Data and Data Related Resources
MEASURE DHS believes that widespread access to survey data by responsible researchers has enormous advantages for the countries concerned and the international community in general. Therefore, MEASURE DHS policy is to release survey data to researchers after the main survey report is published, generally within 12 months after the end of fieldwork. with few limitations these data have been made available for wide use.
DISTRIBUTION OF DATASETS
MEASURE DHS is authorized to distribute, at no cost, unrestricted survey data files for legitimate academic research, with the condition that we receive a description of any research project that will be using the data.
Registration is required for access to data.
Datasets are available for download to all registered users, free of charge. To download datasets, you must first register online and request the country(ies) and datasets that you are interested in. When submitting a dataset request, users must include a brief description of how the data will be used.
Datasets are made available with the following conditions:
- Survey data files are distributed by MEASURE DHS for academic research/statistical analysis. Researchers need to provide a description of any research/analysis that will be using the data, before access is granted to the datasets.
- Once downloaded, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of MEASURE DHS.
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Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Tanzania Bureau of Statistics and Macro International Inc, Calverton, Maryland USA. Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAP) 1994. Dataset downloaded from http://www.measuredhs.com on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.