The Negotiating Reproductive Outcomes (NRO) study was conducted in two districts in Uganda--Masaka and Lira. It was implemented jointly by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program of Macro International Inc. and the Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics (ISAE) at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. The study has two components, a focus group study and a survey of women and men. The survey population includes 1,750 women age 20-44 and 1,356 of their male partners, whether formally married or living together. The survey data are representative of the two districts and were designed to enable estimates to be made for urban and rural areas separately within each district.
The study has three primary objectives:
- To examine how reproductive decisions and their outcomes are negotiated within sexual unions;
- To determine which characteristics of the individual, household, and community influence the negotiation process; and
- To investigate how the position of women influences their ability to negotiate the outcomes they desire.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The survey covered two districts in Uganda - Lira and Masaka
Unit of analysis
- Children age 0-5
- Woman age 20-44
- Man age 15-59
Producers and sponsors
Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics (ISAE)
Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda
Macro International Inc.
United States Agency for International Development
Funded the survey
The NRO sample was designed to provide separate estimates for each district as well as for urban and rural areas within each district. Since both districts are predominantly rural, it was necessary to oversample urban areas to obtain sufficient number of urban respondents. When urban and rural samples are combined, weights are used to accommodate the oversampling of urban areas. In addition, the census definition of urban areas in Lira district was modified to improve its comparability with the definition used in Masaka and to avoid oversaturation of the one "official" urban area in Lira.
The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, census enumeration areas (EAs) were selected with probability proportional to size; in the second stage, households were systematically selected within each EA. Forty EAs were selected in each district, for a total of 80 EAs. Of these, 23 were EAs that had been enumerated for the 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS). These were chosen so that the household listings that had been prepared for the UDHS could be re-used by the NRO teams. In the remaining 57 EAs, the interview teams constructed a household listing through various means, most commonly by using the list kept by the local government official (RC1), and then selecting households systematically.
Note: Appendix A of the final report provides a full description of the sample design.
A total of 3,869 households were selected for interview. Of these, 3,710 were found. The remainder were not valid households either because the dwelling was vacant or destroyed or because the household was absent for an extended period or could not be located. Approximately 97 percent of the contacted households (3,610 households) were successfully interviewed.
The household questionnaires identified 2,384 eligible women. Interviews with 485 of these women were terminated after the initial questions on marital status, however, because they did not meet the study criteria for marital status or long-term relationship. Interviews were completed with 1,750 women who were married, living together with a partner, or in a stable sexual relationship, for a response rate of 92 percent. Among the 1,750 women with complete interviews, there were 1,660 male partners who were eligible for interview. Of these, 1,356 were successfully interviewed, for a male partner response rate of 82 percent.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Based on the results of the focus group study and on an examination of the relevant demographic and anthropological literature, three questionnaires were developed and used to collect the data: household questionnaire, women's questionnaire, and men's questionnaire.
Data entry began two weeks after the commencement of fieldwork. The survey data were entered on three microcomputers in the project office in Kampala. All data processing for the survey was done with ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). Initial editing and consistency checking of the questionnaires was performed in the field by the team supervisors. Some further coding and editing was carried out in the project office prior to data entry. The data entry program detects range, skip, and many consistency errors at the data entry stage. In addition, one hundred percent of the questionnaires were reentered for verification. Finally, secondary editing was performed using a program that carries out complex internal consistency checks and prints out a list of errors, which were then checked against the questionnaires and corrected where possible.
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Documentation of the DDI
Version 01 (August 2017). Metadata is excerpted from "Negotiating Reproductive Outcomes in Uganda" Report.