Demographic and Health Survey (Standard) - DHS VII
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are nationally-representative household surveys that provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, and nutrition.
The 2015-16 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (2015-16 ADHS) is the fourth DHS survey conducted in Armenia, following those carried out in 2000, 2005, and 2010. A nationally representative sample of 8,764 households was selected for the 2015-16 ADHS from 313 clusters. All women age 15-49 who were usual members of the selected households or who stayed the night before the survey in the households were eligible for the survey interview.
The 2015-16 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (2015-16 ADHS) is the fourth in a series of nationally representative sample surveys designed to provide information on population and health issues. It is conducted in Armenia under the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys program. Specifically, the objective of the 2015-16 ADHS is to provide current and reliable information on fertility and abortion levels, marriage, sexual activity, fertility preferences, awareness and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding practices, nutritional status of young children, childhood mortality, maternal and child health, domestic violence against women, child discipline, awareness and behavior regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other health-related issues such as smoking, tuberculosis, and anemia. The survey obtained detailed information on these issues from women of reproductive age and, for certain topics, from men as well.
The 2015-16 ADHS results are intended to provide information needed to evaluate existing social programs and to design new strategies to improve the health of and health services for the people of Armenia. Data are presented by region (marz) wherever sample size permits. The information collected in the 2015-16 ADHS will provide updated estimates of basic demographic and health indicators covered in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 surveys.
The long-term objective of the survey includes strengthening the technical capacity of major government institutions, including the NSS. The 2015-16 ADHS also provides comparable data for longterm trend analysis because the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015-16 surveys were implemented by the same organization and used similar data collection procedures. It also adds to the international database of demographic and health–related information for research purposes.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children age 0-5
- Woman age 15-49
- Man age 15-49
The data dictionary was generated from hierarchical data that was downloaded from the The DHS Program website (http://dhsprogram.com).
The 2015-16 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey covered the following topics:
• Usual members and visitors in the selected households
• Background information on each person listed, such as relationship to head of the household, age, sex, marital status, survivorship and residence of bilogical parents, school attendance, highest educational attainment, child discipline, and domestic violence
• Characteristics of the household's dwelling unit, such as the main source of (drinking) water, access to water source, type of toilet facilities, type of fuel used for cooking, number of rooms, materials used for the floor, roof and walls of the house, ownership of livestocks, and possessions of durable goods (including land).
• Background characteristics
• Pregnancy history, reasons for any abortions, and child mortality
• Knowledge, attitudes, and use of contraception
• Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
• Vaccinations of children under age 3
• Episodes of diarrhea and respiratory illness of children under age 5
• Breastfeeding and weaning practices
• Marriage and recent sexual activity
• Fertility preferences
• Knowledge of and attitudes toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases
• Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics
• Domestic violence
• Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior related to other health issues (for example, tuberculosis, anemia, and smoking)
• Respondent's background
• Marriage and sexual activity
• Fertility preferences
• Employment and gender roles
• Other health issues
• Weight, height, and hemoglobin measurement for children age 0-5
• Weight, height measurement and hemoglobin testing for women age 15-49
• Background characteristics, area of residence, number of living children, languages, and prior DHS survey experiences
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), children age 0-4 years, women age 15-49 years and men age 15-49 years resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Service (NSSS)
Government of the Republic of Armenia
Ministry of Health (MOH)
Government of the Republic of Armenia
The DHS Program
Provided technical assistance through The DHS Program
Government of Armenia
Funded the study
United States Agency for International Development
Funded the study
United Nations Children’s Fund
Funded the study
United Nations Population Fund
Funded the study
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
Funded the study
The sample was designed to produce representative estimates of key indicators at the national level, for Yerevan, and for total urban and total rural areas separately. Many indicators can also be estimated at the regional (marz) level.
The sampling frame used for the 2015-16 ADHS is the Armenia Population and Housing Census, which was conducted in Armenia in 2011 (APHC 2011). The sampling frame is a complete list of enumeration areas (EAs) covering the whole country, a total number of 11,571 EAs, provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) of Armenia, the implementing agency for the 2015-16 ADHS. This EA frame was created from the census data base by summarizing the households down to EA level. A representative probability sample of 8,749 households was selected for the 2015-16 ADHS sample. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 313 clusters (192 in urban areas and 121 in rural areas) were selected from a list of EAs in the sampling frame. In the second stage, a complete listing of households was carried out in each selected cluster. Households were then systematically selected for participation in the survey. Appendix A provides additional information on the sample design of the 2015-16 Armenia DHS. Because of the approximately equal sample size in each marz, the sample is not self-weighting at the national level, and weighting factors have been calculated, added to the data file, and applied so that results are representative at the national level.
For further details on sample design, see Appendix A of the final report.
A total of 8,749 households were selected in the sample, of which 8,205 were occupied at the time of the fieldwork. The main reason for the difference is that some of the dwelling units that were occupied during the household listing operation were either vacant or the household was away for an extended period at the time of interviewing. The number of occupied households successfully interviewed was 7,893, yielding a household response rate of 96 percent. The household response rate in urban areas (96 percent) was nearly the same as in rural areas (97 percent).
In these households, a total of 6,251 eligible women were identified; interviews were completed with 6,116 of these women, yielding a response rate of 98 percent. In one-half of the households, a total of 2,856 eligible men were identified, and interviews were completed with 2,755 of these men, yielding a response rate of 97 percent. Among men, response rates are slightly lower in urban areas (96 percent) than in rural areas (97 percent), whereas rates for women are the same in urban and in rural areas (98 percent).
The 2015-16 ADHS achieved a slightly higher response rate for households than the 2010 ADHS (NSS 2012). The increase is only notable for urban households (96 percent in 2015-16 compared with 94 percent in 2010). Response rates in all other categories are very close to what they were in 2010.
A spreadsheet containing all of the sampling parameters and selection probabilities was prepared to facilitate the calculation of the design weights. The design weights were adjusted for nonresponse to obtain sampling weights for households and for women and men. In turn, the sampling weights were normalized so that, at the national level, the total number of weighted cases would be equal to the total number of unweighted cases. The normalized weights are relative weights that are valid for estimating means, proportions, and ratios but not for estimating population totals and pooled data. In addition, the number of cases obtained by applying the normalized weights has no direct relation with survey precision because it is relative; therefore, especially for oversampled areas, the number of weighted cases will be much smaller than the number of unweighted cases, which is directly related to survey precision.
Four sets of general weights were calculated for the 2015-16 ADHS:
• one set for all households selected for the survey
• one set for women
• one set for households selected for the male survey
• one set for men
In addition, there were two sets of special weights that applied to the subsample of women age 15-49 selected randomly for the domestic violence module and the subsample of children age 1-14 selected for the child discipline module.
For further details on sampling weights, see Appendix A.4 of the final report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Thirteen teams collected the survey data; each team consisted of four female interviewers, a male interviewer, a field editor, a health investigator, and a team supervisor. Fieldwork started on 8 December 2015 in most regions and stopped from 31 December 2015 until 7 January 2016 for the New Year and Orthodox Christmas holidays. Fieldwork resumed on 8 January 2016, and was completed by 5 April 2016.
Fieldwork monitoring was an integral part of the ADHS. Senior ADHS technical staff from NSS and NIH visited teams regularly to review the work and monitor data quality. Representatives from The DHS Program and USAID/Armenia also visited teams to monitor data collection and to observe the anemia testing and height and weight measurements of women and children under age 5.
National Statistical Service
Government of the Republic of Armenia
Five questionnaires were used for the 2015-16 ADHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, the Man’s Questionnaire, the Biomarker Questionnaire, and the Fieldworker Questionnaire. These questionnaires, based on The DHS Program’s standard Demographic and Health Survey questionnaires, were adapted to reflect the population and health issues relevant to Armenia. Input was solicited from various stakeholders representing government ministries and agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and international donors. After all questionnaires were finalized in English, they were translated into Armenian. They were pretested in September-October 2015.
The processing of the 2015-16 ADHS data began shortly after fieldwork commenced. All completed questionnaires were edited immediately by field editors while still in the field and checked by the supervisors before being dispatched to the data processing center at the NSS central office in Yerevan. These completed questionnaires were edited and entered by 15 data processing personnel specially trained for this task. All data were entered twice for 100 percent verification. Data were entered using the CSPro computer package. The concurrent processing of the data was an advantage because the senior ADHS technical staff were able to advise field teams of problems detected during the data entry. In particular, tables were generated to check various data quality parameters. Moreover, the double entry of data enabled easy comparison and identification of errors and inconsistencies. As a result, specific feedback was given to the teams to improve performance. The data entry and editing phase of the survey was completed in June 2016.
Estimates of Sampling Error
SAS computer software were used to calculate sampling errors for the 2015-16 ADHS. The programs used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for means or proportions and the Jackknife repeated replication method for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
A more detailed description of estimates of sampling errors are presented in Appendix B of the survey final report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
- Nutritional status of children based on the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population
- Vaccinations by background characteristics for children age 18-29 months
See details of the data quality tables in Appendix C of the survey final report.
Request Dataset Access
The following applies to DHS, MIS, AIS and SPA survey datasets (Surveys, GPS, and HIV).
To request dataset access, you must first be a registered user of the website. You must then create a new research project request. The request must include a project title and a description of the analysis you propose to perform with the data.
The requested data should only be used for the purpose of the research or study. To request the same or different data for another purpose, a new research project request should be submitted. The DHS Program will normally review all data requests within 24 hours (Monday - Friday) and provide notification if access has been granted or additional project information is needed before access can be granted.
DATASET ACCESS APPROVAL PROCESS
Access to DHS, MIS, AIS and SPA survey datasets (Surveys, HIV, and GPS) is requested and granted by country. This means that when approved, full access is granted to all unrestricted survey datasets for that country. Access to HIV and GIS datasets requires an online acknowledgment of the conditions of use.
A dataset request must include contact information, a research project title, and a description of the analysis you propose to perform with the data.
A few datasets are restricted and these are noted. Access to restricted datasets is requested online as with other datasets. An additional consent form is required for some datasets, and the form will be emailed to you upon authorization of your account. For other restricted surveys, permission must be granted by the appropriate implementing organizations, before The DHS Program can grant access. You will be emailed the information for contacting the implementing organizations. A few restricted surveys are authorized directly within The DHS Program, upon receipt of an email request.
When The DHS Program receives authorization from the appropriate organizations, the user will be contacted, and the datasets made available by secure FTP.
GPS/HIV Datasets/Other Biomarkers
Once downloaded, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of The DHS Program. All reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to The DHS Program Data Archive in a Portable Document Format (pdf) or a printed hard copy.
Datasets are made available for download by survey. You will be presented with a list of surveys for which you have been granted dataset access. After selecting a survey, a list of all available datasets for that survey will be displayed, including all survey, GPS, and HIV data files. However, only data types for which you have been granted access will be accessible. To download, simply click on the files that you wish to download and a "File Download" prompt will guide you through the remaining steps.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (September 2017). Metadata is excerpted from "Armenia Demographic and Health Survey 2015-2016" final report.