This survey was conducted in Egypt between October 2016 and April 2017 to gain an understanding of what firms experience in the private sector.
The Enterprise Surveys, through interviews with firms in the manufacturing and services sectors, capture business perceptions on the biggest obstacles to enterprise growth, the relative importance of various constraints to increasing employment and productivity, and the effects of a country's business environment on its international competitiveness. They are used to create statistically significant business environment indicators that are comparable across countries. The Enterprise Surveys are also used to build a panel of enterprise data that will make it possible to track changes in the business environment over time and allow, for example, impact assessments of reforms.
Data from 1,827 establishments was analyzed. Stratified random sampling was used to select the surveyed businesses.
The survey topics include firm characteristics, information about sales and suppliers, competition, infrastructure services, judiciary and law enforcement collaboration, security, government policies, laws and regulations, financing, overall business environment, bribery, capacity utilization, performance and investment activities, and workforce composition.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v01, edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution
All variables are named using, first, the letter of each section and, second, the number of the variable within the section, i.e. a1 denotes section A, question 1 (some exceptions apply due to comparability reasons). Variable names preceded by the prefix "EGY" or "MNA" indicate questions specific to Egypt, therefore, they may not be found in the implementation of the rollout in other countries. All other suffixed variables are global and are present in all country surveys over the world. All variables are numeric with the exception of those variables with an "x" at the end of their names. The suffix "x" denotes that the variable is alpha-numeric.
Regions covered are selected based on the number of establishments, contribution to employment, and value added. In most cases these regions are metropolitan areas and reflect the largest centers of economic activity in a country.
Unit of analysis
The primary sampling unit of the study is the establishment. An establishment is a physical location where business is carried out and where industrial operations take place or services are provided. A firm may be composed of one or more establishments. For example, a brewery may have several bottling plants and several establishments for distribution. For the purposes of this survey an establishment must make its own financial decisions and have its own financial statements separate from those of the firm. An establishment must also have its own management and control over its payroll.
The whole population, or universe of the study, is the non-agricultural economy. It comprises: all manufacturing sectors according to the group classification of ISIC Revision 3.1: (group D), construction sector (group F), services sector (groups G and H), and transport, storage, and communications sector (group I). Note that this definition excludes the following sectors: financial intermediation (group J), real estate and renting activities (group K, except sub-sector 72, IT, which was added to the population under study), and all public or utilities-sectors.
Producers and sponsors
The sample was selected using stratified random sampling. Three levels of stratification were used in this country: industry, establishment size, and region.
Industry stratification was designed in the way that follows: the universe was stratified into nine (9) manufacturing and five (5) services industries. The manufacturing industries are Extractives (ISIC Rev. 3.1 code 11), Food, Beverages and Tobacco (ISIC Rev. 3.1 code 15 & 16), Textiles and Garments (ISIC code 17 & 18), Chemicals and Chemical products (ISIC code 24), Petro-chemicals, Rubber and Plastics (ISIC code 23 & 25), Non-metallic mineral products (ISIC code 26), Leather products (ISIC code 19), Furniture, Paper and Printing and Wood products (ISIC code 20-22, 36), Basic Metals and Metal products (ISIC codes 27 & 28) Machinery, Equipment, Electronics, Vehicles and Recycling (ISIC codes 29-35, 37).While the services industries are Wholesale, Retail and Automotive trade (ISIC codes 50-52), Hospitality and Tourism (ISIC codes 55& 63), Transportation (ISIC codes 60-62), ICT (ISIC codes 64 & 72) and Real Estate and Construction (ISIC codes 45 & 70). Note that the global ES methodology excludes Extractives as well as Real Estate activities from the universe of inference. Consequently, for Egypt, there are two datasets available, one including all observations, and another excluding firms that work in Extractives and Real Estate.
For the Egypt ES, size stratification was defined as follows: small (5 to 19 employees), medium (20 to 99 employees), and large (100 or more employees).
Regional stratification for the Egypt ES was done across seven regions: Greater Cairo, Wes Delta, Suez Region, Middle and East Delta, Northern Upper Egypt, Southern Upper Egypt and Frontier.
The sample frame consisted of listings of firms from several sources. For panel firms, the list of 3,846 firms from the Egypt 2004 and 2013 ES was used. For fresh firms (firms not covered in Egypt 2004 and 2013), firm data from Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) and General Authority For Investment and Free Zones (GAFI) was used.
Given the impact that non-eligible units included in the sample universe may have on the results, adjustments may be needed when computing the appropriate weights for individual observations. The percentage of confirmed non-eligible units as a proportion of the total number of sampled establishments contacted for the survey was 15.6% (702 out of 4,488 establishments).
Survey non-response must be differentiated from item non-response. The former refers to refusals to participate in the survey altogether, while the latter refers to the refusals to answer some specific questions. Enterprise Surveys suffer from both problems and different strategies were used to address these issues.
Item non-response was addressed by two strategies:
a- For sensitive questions that may generate negative reactions from the respondent, such as corruption or tax evasion, enumerators were instructed to collect the refusal to respond as a different option from don’t know.
b- Establishments with incomplete information were re-contacted in order to complete this information, whenever necessary.
Survey non-response was addressed by maximizing efforts to contact establishments that were initially selected for interview. Attempts were made to contact the establishment for interview at different times/days of the week before a replacement establishment (with similar strata characteristics) was suggested for interview. Survey non-response did occur but substitutions were made in order to potentially achieve strata-specific goals.
The number of realized interviews per contacted establishment was 0.41. This number is the result of two factors: explicit refusals to participate in the survey, as reflected by the rate of rejection (which includes rejections of the screener and the main survey) and the quality of the sample frame, as represented by the presence of ineligible units. The share of rejections per contact was 0.06.
For some units it was impossible to determine eligibility because the contact was not successfully completed. Consequently, different assumptions as to their eligibility result in different universe cells' adjustments and in different sampling weights. Three sets of assumptions were considered:
a- Strict assumption: eligible establishments are only those for which it was possible to directly determine eligibility.
b- Median assumption: eligible establishments are those for which it was possible to directly determine eligibility and those that rejected the screener questionnaire or an answering machine or fax was the only response. Median weights are used for computing indicators on the www.enterprisesurveys.org website.
c- Weak assumption: in addition to the establishments included in points a and b, all establishments for which it was not possible to finalize a contact are assumed eligible. This includes establishments with dead or out of service phone lines, establishments that never answered the phone, and establishments with incorrect addresses for which it was impossible to find a new address. Note that under the weak assumption only observed non-eligible units are excluded from universe projections.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The structure of the database reflects the fact that two different versions of the survey instrument were used for all registered establishments. Questionnaires have common questions (core module) and respectfully additional manufacturing- and services-specific questions. The eligible manufacturing industries have been surveyed using the Manufacturing questionnaire (includes the core module, plus manufacturing specific questions). Retail firms have been interviewed using the Services questionnaire (includes the core module plus retail specific questions) and the residual eligible services have been covered using the Services questionnaire (includes the core module). Each variation of the questionnaire is identified by the index variable, a0.
American University of Cairo
Data entry and quality controls are implemented by the contractor and data is delivered to the World Bank in batches (typically 10%, 50% and 100%). These data deliveries are checked for logical consistency, out of range values, skip patterns, and duplicate entries. Problems are flagged by the World Bank and corrected by the implementing contractor through data checks, callbacks, and revisiting establishments.
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name);
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation;
- the survey reference number;
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
World Bank. Egypt, Arab Rep. Enterprise Survey (ES) 2016, Ref. EGY_2016_ES_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.