The survey covered all the public schools and government aided/supported schools.
Producers and sponsors
David K. Evans, The World Bank and Moussa P. Blimpo, Stanford University
The initial sample was made of all the 276 public schools and government aided/supported schools in regions 2, 3, 4, and 6.
The schools were clustered in groups of 2 or 3 schools on the basis of proximity for the randomization. This was done mainly to limit contamination while allowing useful exchange/cooperation between/among close schools. The randomization was further stratified by the size of the schools and their hardship 1 status. The following procedures were observed at the school level:
* Head teacher questionnaire
- Responded by the head teacher of the school
- The deputy head teacher can respond only if the head teacher is not present.
- A senior teacher is allowed to respond in case either deputy or head teacher are not present.
* Selection of classes for the classroom visit
- The enumerator gets the list of all the classes and selects two classrooms other than the ones participating in the written test.
- 528 classes were visited, 175 are WSD; 180 are grant only; and 173 are control schools.
*Selection of students for the written test
One grade 3 class and one grade 5 class were selected randomly in each school. In each of the classes, 20 students were selected randomly. The gender parity was observed throughout. In total 8959 students were tested and about a third were selected in each treatment group.
*Selection of students for the pupils' questionnaire
- 10 students (5 from grade 3 and 5 from grade 5) are randomly selected among the 40 who took the written test to respond to the questionnaire.
- In total 2696 students were interviewed of which, 879 are WSD; 920 are grant only; and 897 are from the control schools.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Two regions were excluded:
*Region 1 was excluded on the basis that it was too urban compare to the others.
*Region 5 was excluded because of its prior exposition to a variant of the WSD.
Of the 276 schools, 3 schools were excluded from the samples because they were new schools and had only grade 1 and 2 or were close during the time of the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
i) Head Teacher Questionnaire
The head teacher questionnaire is designed to collect broad characteristics of the schools as a whole. The main sections of this questionnaire include the examination of the school facilities (main buildings, sanitary, water provision etc), enrollment and staffs, school management (leadership, involvement of the local community, records keeping etc.). The main respondent to this questionnaire is the head teacher. However, in the event of his absence, the deputy head teacher or a senior teacher answers the questions.
ii) Classroom Visits
The classroom observation is intended to collect valuable information about the classroom activities and teaching practices. In each of the two classrooms randomly selected per school, the enumerator seats in the back of the class for 15 to 20 minutes and takes note of the teaching activities such as the students participation, teacher control over the class, etc. At the end of the observation, the teacher is asked a few questions about the school and his or her teaching such as lesson plans and lesson notes.
iii) Written Numeracy and Literacy Test
The written numeracy and literacy test is made by experts in the field of testing to assess the overall performance of the students in classes 3 and 5. The test has 4 sections:
- The math section with 32 basic arithmetic questions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
-A word match section with 13 questions where students are given a word (20 questions in total) and they are to identify that word among a list of 4 words
- A vocabulary section where student are given a sentence with an underlined word and they are to identify the synonym of the underlined word among a list of 4 word
- A missing word section (11 questions) where a word is removed from a sentence and the students are to find the correct word that fits the blank among a list of 4 words.
iv) Pupils' Questionnaire & Oral Literacy Test
The pupils' questionnaire is designed to collect some background information about the students and to give then an oral literacy test. This questionnaire collects information about the students' socio-demographic information, performance and progress, and welfare. In addition, the student are given an oral literacy test that has the following components:
- Letter name knowledge: The student is given a panel of 100 letters and are asked to read as many as they could in 60 seconds.
- Reading: The students are to read a small passage of 60 words and then they are asked a few questions about the content of the passage.
- Listening and comprehension: Here the enumerator reads a small passage aloud and then asks a few questions about the passage to the students.
v ) Teacher Questionnaire and Test
The teacher questionnaire is designed to collect some background information about the teacher and to give then a numeracy and literacy test. This questionnaire collects information about the teachers' socio-demographic information and teaching experiences. In addition, the teacher is given a test that has the following components:
- The math section with 33 arithmetic questions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
- A vocabulary section (10 questions) where student are given a sentence with an underlined word and they are to identify the synonym of the underlined word among a list of 4 word
- A missing word section (10 questions) where a word is removed from a sentence and the students are to find the correct word that fits the blank among a list of 4 words.
- A reading section where the teacher is to read a short story and he/she is asked 5 questions about the story.
All questionnaires are provided as external resources.
Moussa P. Blimpo
David K. Evans and Moussa P. Blimpo. Africa Program for Education Impact Evaluation, The Gambia (Round 2) 2009. Ref. GMB_2009_APEIE_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from <www.microdata.worldbank.org> on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
(c) 2010, The World Bank
DDI Document ID
The World Bank
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version