The European Social Survey (ESS) is an academically driven cross-national survey that has been conducted across Europe since its establishment in 2001. Every two years, face-to-face interviews are conducted with newly selected, cross-sectional samples. The survey measures the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour patterns of diverse populations in more than 30 nations.
As of 2017, eight rounds of ESS have been conducted.
The European Social Survey (ESS) is an academically-driven multi-country survey, which has been administered in over 30 countries to date. Its three aims are, firstly - to monitor and interpret changing public attitudes and values within Europe and to investigate how they interact with Europe's changing institutions, secondly - to advance and consolidate improved methods of cross-national survey measurement in Europe and beyond, and thirdly - to develop a series of European social indicators, including attitudinal indicators.
In the fifth round, the survey covers 28 countries and employs the most rigorous methodologies. During ESS Round 5 Year 1 there was no suitable EC funding vehicle available for ESS coordination. A group of national ESS funders therefore provided funding for the coordination of Round 5 Year 1. These included: UK (Economic and Social Research Council), Germany (Federal Ministry of Education and Research), Sweden (Swedish Research Council), Switzerland (Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)), the Netherlands (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research), Finland (Academy of Finland, Research Council for Culture and Society), Norway (Research Council of Norway) and Austria (Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour). Supplementary funds are being provided by the European Science Foundation (ESF) for scientific liaison. City University in the UK also made a financial contribution for Year 1 of Round 5 of the ESS.
The survey involves strict random probability sampling, a minimum target response rate of 70% and rigorous translation protocols. The hour-long face-to-face interview includes questions on a variety of core topics repeated from previous rounds of the survey and also two modules developed for Round Five covering Trust in the Police and Courts and Work, Family and Wellbeing (the latter is a partial repeat of a module from round 2).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
ESS5 edition 3.3 (published December 1, 2016)
The data is available to users without restrictions, for not-for-profit purposes. In accordance with data protection regulations in participating countries, only anonymous data is available.
For previous releases please see: http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/data/ESS5_version_notes.html
The scope of the study includes:
- social trust
- political interest and participation
- socio-political orientations
- social exclusion
- national, ethnic and religious allegiances
- climate change, energy security and energy preferences
- human values
- demographics and socioeconomics
All persons aged 15 and over resident within private households, regardless of their nationality, citizenship, language or legal status, in the following participating countries:
1) European Union countries - Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.
2) Non-European Union countries: Israel, Norway, Switzerland, Russian Federation, Ukraine.
Producers and sponsors
ESS European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ESS ERIC)
Austria - Bundesministerium für Arbeit, Soziales und Konsumentenschutz (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection)
Belgium - Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk onderzoek (FWO)
Belgium - Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)
Bulgaria - NSF
Croatia - Croatian Science Foundation
Cyprus - European University Cyprus
Czech Republic - Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports
Denmark - The Danish Council for Independent Research | Social Sciences
Estonia - Ministry of Science and Education, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Justice
Finland - Academy of Finland (Suomen Akatemia)
France - GIS Quételet, EHESS, PPF de l'Université de Caen, Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques
Germany - Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation)
Greece - The National Centre for Social Research (EKKE)
Hungary - OTKA (Orszagos Tudomanyos Kutatasi Alapprogramok - Hungarian Scientific Research Fund
Ireland - Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS)
Israel - The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Lithuania - European Social Fund and Lithuanian Ministry of Education and Science
Netherlands - Netherlands National Science Foundation NWO
Norway - The Research Council of Norway
Poland - Ministry of Science and Higher Education
Portugal - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia
Russian Federation - John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Russian Federation - RGNF (Russian Science Foundation of Humanitarian Sciences)
Slovakia - Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic
Slovenia - Slovenian Research Agency
Spain - Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) & Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS)
Sweden - Vetenskapsrådet, Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, Forskningsrådet för arbetsliv och socialvetenskap
Switzerland - SNFS (Swiss National Science Foundation)
Ukraine - National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, International Reinessance Foundation
United Kingdom - Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
The purpose of the design weights (DWEIGHT) is to correct for unequal probabilities for selection due to the sampling design used.
In general design weights were computed for each country as follows.
1.w = 1/(PROB1*...*PROBk) is a nx1 vector of weights ; k depends on the number of stages of the sampling design.
2. All weights were rescaled in a way that the sum of the final weights equals n, i.e. Rescaled weights = n*w/sum(w).
The purpose of the post-stratification weights (PSPWGHT) is to reduce sampling error and non-response bias, using auxiliary information. The ESS post-stratification weights have been constructed using information about age, gender, education and region. The ESS post-stratification weights also adjust for unequal selection probabilities (design weights).
A raking procedure has been used in the production of the post-stratification weights.
Source population figures: Eurostat. The European Union labour force survey (EU-LFS).
For Croatia, Israel, Norway, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Sweden: ESS Appendix A4 Population Statistics.
POPULATION SIZE WEIGHTS:
The Population size weights (PWEIGHT) correct for population size when combining two or more country's data, and is calculated as PWEIGHT=[Population aged 15 years and over]/[(Net sample in data file)*10 000]
Source population figures: Eurostat. For Israel: national statistics.
In the ESS, data have to be collected via face-to-face interviews (preferably CAPI) in all participating countries. In each country, the national funding agency appoints a National Coordinator and a survey organisation to implement the survey according to common ESS specifications.
The core scientific team responsible for ESS implementation consisted of:
Roger Jowell (PI), Rory Fitzgerald, Eric Harrison, Gillian Eva, Peter Martin, Sally Widdop, Lizzy Gatrell and Mary Keane: Centre for Comparative Social Surveys (CCSS), City University, UK. Geert Looseveldt, Jaak Billiet and Hideko Matsuo: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. Bjørn Henrichsen, Knut Kalgraff Skjåk, and Kirstine Kolsrud: NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway. Michael Braun, Angelika Scheuer, Sabine Häder, Achim Koch, Annelies Blom, Matthias Ganninger, Verena Halbherr, Dorothée Behr and Brita Dorer: GESIS, Germany. Willem Saris, Irmtraud Gallhofer, Daniel Oberski and Diana Zavala Rojas: Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain. Ineke Stoop, Joost Kappelhof and Henk Fernee: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP), Netherlands. Brina Malnar: University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
The dates for data collection in each of the countries were the following:
Field work period: Austria - 24.05.13 - 10.10.13
Field work period: Belgium - 11.10.10 - 06.05.11
Field work period: Bulgaria - 17.12.10 - 28.03.11
Field work period: Croatia - 16.09.11 - 14.12.11
Field work period: Cyprus - 01.01.11 - 21.06.11
Field work period: Czech Republic - 20.01.11 - 08.03.11
Field work period: Denmark - 20.09.10 - 31.01.11
Field work period: Estonia - 10.10.2010 - 28.05.2011
Field work period: Finland - 13.09.10 - 30.12.10
Field work period: France - 15.10.10 - 06.04.11
Field work period: Germany - 15.09.10 - 03.02.11
Field work period: Greece - 06.05.11 - 05.07.11
Field work period: Hungary - 19.10.10 - 10.12.10
Field work period: Ireland - 20.09.11 - 31.01.12
Field work period: Israel - 09.01.11 - 13.06.11
Field work period: Lithuania - 21.04.2011 to 20.08.2011
Field work period: Netherlands - 27.09.10 - 02.04.11
Field work period: Norway - 09.09.10 - 15.02.11
Field work period: Poland - 01.10.10 - 06.02.11
Field work period: Portugal - 11.10.10 - 23.03.11
Field work period: Russian Federation - 24.12.10 - 14.05.11
Field work period: Slovakia - 29.10.10 - 28.02.11
Field work period: Slovenia - 20.10.10 - 31.01.11
Field work period: Spain - 11.04.11 - 24.07.11
Field work period: Sweden - 27.09.10 - 01.03.11
Field work period: Switzerland - 02.10.10 - 23.03.11
Field work period: Ukraine - 13.05.11 - 30.07.11
Field work period: United Kingdom - 31.08.10 - 28.02.11
Citation of data:
ESS Round 5: European Social Survey Round 5 Data (2010). Data file edition 3.3. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC.
Citation of documentation:
ESS Round 5: European Social Survey (2016): ESS-5 2010 Documentation Report. Edition 4.1. Bergen, European Social Survey Data Archive, NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data for ESS ERIC.
To ensure that such source attributions are captured for social science bibliographic utilities, citations must appear in the footnotes or in the reference section of publications.
Archive where study is originally stored
ESS European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ESS ERIC)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The ESS ERIC, Core Scientific Team (CST) and the producers bear no responsibility for the uses of the ESS data, or for interpretations or inferences based on these uses. The ESS ERIC, CST and the producers accept no liability for indirect, consequential or incidental damages or losses arising from use of the data collection, or from the unavailability of, or break in access to the service for whatever reason.
DDI Document ID
NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data
Norway's Ministry of Education and Research
Documentation and archiving of the study
Development Data Group
DDI editing, metadata distribution in the World Bank Microdata Catalog and IHSN Survey Catalog
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
- v01 (2016)
The metadata was documented by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data. It was downloaded on November 17, 2017 from http://nesstar.ess.nsd.uib.no/webview/index.jsp?v=2&submode=abstract&study=http%3A%2F%2F18.104.22.168%3A80%2Fobj%2FfStudy%2FESS8e01.0&mode=documentation&top=yes by the World Bank Microdata Library documentation team. The dataset and documents were downloaded on November 17, 2017 from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/data/download.html?r=5
- v02 (November 2017)
Modifications in the study ID and DDI ID were done by the World Bank Microdata Library documentation team to match the standard used by the library and the IHSN Survey Catalog. Some metadata fields were edited, and additional metadata fields were added.