Survey of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Households and Schools 2017
Integrated Survey (non-LSMS) [hh/is]
Fieldwork for the WASH survey took advantage of a previous household survey with similar design requirements fielded in 2015 by the World Bank, namely the Proxy Means Test (PMT) Survey. The same primary sampling units were included, but households that participated in the 2015 PMT Survey were ineligible to participate in the WASH survey. The sample was designed for representativeness at the national, urban/rural, and the five main subnational administrative areas. The initial sample frame for the 2015 PMT survey was the 2010 population and housing census.
This study provides Microdata for household and school surveys collected to support the 2017 Poverty Diagnostic of the Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Sector. The diagnostic aimed to assess and visualize drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene service conditions of communities and households in the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution.
The primary survey data comes from two nationally representative surveys that were carried out for this study. The Household WASH Survey and the School WASH Survey covered about 3,000 households and 300 primary/secondary schools, respectively, and were conducted in the same primary sampling units following a household listing exercise. The school survey covers basic WASH conditions in schools, whereas the household survey contains information on the availability and quality of WASH services, costs incurred for meeting WASH needs, the health and other impacts on household wellbeing, and willingness to pay for improved services.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of this study includes:
- Section I: Household Roster
- Section II: Economic Characteristics
- Section III: Water Supply
- Section IV: Sanitation and Hygiene
- Section I: School Information
- Section II: Water Supply
- Section III: Sanitation and Hygiene
- Section IV. Water-Borne Illnesses
- Section V. Observations
The Household WASH Survey gathered information regarding the status of WASH-related services and practices for a nationally representative sample of Tajikistan. It was also designed to be representative at the subnational level.
The Household WASH Survey and the School WASH Survey covered about 3,000 households and 300 primary/secondary schools, respectively.
Producers and sponsors
Emcet Oktay Tas
- Households: Standard stratified 2-stage random sampling.
- Sampling frame: 2010 national Census.
- Schools: Two selected on the basis of catchment areas in which selected PSUs fall.
- The survey included an intended 3000 households (3052 actually interviewed) from 150 primary sampling units (PSUs), and 300 schools (302 actually included).
Separate survey weights for each of the samples were calculated and merged with the survey data. Separate weights (adjusted for the PSU size using the results from the listing) were calculated for: (i) the main household sample weights; (ii) weights for the selected drinking water testing sample; (iii) weights for the selected water source testing sample; (iv) weights for the integrated Nutrition/WASH survey sample; and (v) weights for the selected schools sample.
The weights for households were based on the size of the population by strata projected by the Statistics Agency under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan (TajStat) for 2016, updated with PSU-level population estimates from the listing exercise. The weights for schools were assigned on the basis of the number of schools by region according to the official Education Management Information System (EMIS) database maintained by the Ministry of Education.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
The survey instrument covered a range of information for the calculation of household welfare status, access to water and sanitation services, and practices relating to hygiene. It covered nine modules: (i) key demographic characteristics; (ii) housing and infrastructure; (iii) recall (one-week) of household food consumption and expenditure; (iv) consumption and expenditure on nonfood items; (v) water supply; (vi) sanitation facilities; (vii) hygiene practices; (viii) health issues; and (ix) water cleanliness testing at site of consumption/water source (for a subsample).
The School WASH Survey likewise gathered information regarding the status of WASH-related services and practices for a nationally representative sample. The instrument covered eight modules: (i) key school-level characteristics; (ii) information on the available water supply; (iii) self-assessed water quality and safety; (iv) sanitation and hygiene infrastructure; (v) education on hygiene; (vi) menstrual hygiene; (vii) water-borne illnesses; and (viii) water cleanliness testing at site of consumption/water source (for a subsample).
Estimates of Sampling Error
To establish the expected precision of the estimates and the potential need to adjust the sample design, the results from the 2015 PMT survey were used to calculate subpopulation characteristics, and in particular, the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) of household consumption. The ICC measures the degree of homogeneity for units of analysis within a given area (households within a cluster), which in turn is a key factor in the efficiency and precision of a sample. The more similar the units of analysis are within a given area, the higher the design effects and the higher the error. Increasing the number of units of analysis that are relatively homogeneous in a given area further amplifies the loss of precision.
The sample design for the 2015 PMT survey ultimately did not use either the proportional or the equal allocation. Instead, it opted for an approach that was both simple and minimized the random sampling error (RSE) within regions. For all regions, the RSE was below the objective of 0.1. It was thus decided that no sample reallocation was needed.
Emcet Oktay Tas
- Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions.
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name);
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation;
- the survey reference number;
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Emcet Oktay Tas (World Bank). Tajikistan - Survey of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Households and Schools (WASH) 2017. Ref. TJK_2016_WASH_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.