The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a household survey programme developed by UNICEF to assist countries in filling data gaps for monitoring human development in general and the situation of children and women in particular. MICS is capable of producing statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of social indicators. The Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey provides valuable information on the situation of children and women in Viet Nam, and was based, in large part, on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The 2006 Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives:
- To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Viet Nam;
- To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established by the Millennium Development Goals, the goals of A World Fit For Children (WFFC), and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;
- To provide valuable information for the 3rd and 4th National Report of Vietnam's implementation of the Convention on the child rights in the period 2002-2007 as well as for monitoring the National Plan of Action for Children 2001-2010.
- To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Viet Nam and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
Following the MICS global questionnaire templates, the questionnaires were designed in a modular fashion customized to the needs of Viet Nam. The questionnaires consist of a household questionnaire, a questionnaire for women aged 15-49 and a questionnaire for children under the age of five (to be administered to the mother or caretaker).
The Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried by General Statistics Office of Viet Nam (GSO) in collaboration with Viet Nam Committee for Population, Family and Children (VCPFC). Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Technical assistance and training for the survey was provided through a series of regional workshops organised by UNICEF covering questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation; data processing; data quality and data analysis; report writing and dissemination.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Version 1.0: Edited data used for final report (2006)
Low birth weight
Care of illness
Solid fuel use
Water and Sanitation
Maternal and newborn health
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3
The survey is nationally representative and covers the whole of Viet Nam.
Unit of analysis
Households (defined as a group of persons who usually live and eat together)
Household members (defined as members of the household who usually live in the household, which may include people who did not sleep in the household the previous night, but does not include visitors who slept in the household the previous night but do not usually live in the household)
Women aged 15-49
Children aged 0-4
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged 15-49 years resident in the household, and all children aged 0-4 years (under age 5) resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Social and Environmental Statistics Department
General Statistics Office of Viet Nam
Survey conductor and report developer
United Nations Children's Fund
Technical and Financial Support
The sample for the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed to provide reliable estimates on a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for 8 regions: Red River Delta, North West, North East, North Central Coast, South Central Coast, Central Highlands, South East, and Mekong River Delta. Regions were identified as the main sampling domains and the sample was selected in two stages. At the first stage 250 census enumeration areas (EA) were selected, of which all 240 EAs of MICS2 with systematic method were reselected and 10 new EAs were added. The addition of 10 more EAs (together with the increase in the sample size) was to increase the reliability level for regional estimates. Consequently, within each region, 30-33 EAs were selected for MICS3. After a household listing was carried out within the selected enumeration areas, a systematic sample of 1/3 of households in each EA was drawn. The survey managed to visit all of 250 selected EAs during the fieldwork period. The sample was stratified by region and is not self-weighting. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in the technical documents and in Appendix A of the final report.
Deviations from sample design
No major deviations from the original sample design were made. All sample enumeration areas were accessed and successfully interviewed with good response rates.
8356 households were selected for the sample. Of these all were found to be occupied households and 8355 were successfully interviewed for a response rate of 100%. Within these households, 10063 eligible women aged 15-49 were identified for interview, of which 9473 were successfully interviewed (response rate 94.1%), and 2707 children aged 0-4 were identified for whom the mother or caretaker was successfully interviewed for 2680 children (response rate 99%).
Sample weights were calculated for each of the datafiles.
Sample weights for the household data were computed as the inverse of the probability of selection of the household, computed at the sampling domain level (urban/rural within each region). The household weights were adjusted for non-response at the domain level, and were then normalized by a constant factor so that the total weighted number of households equals the total unweighted number of households. The household weight variable is called HHWEIGHT and is used with the HH data and the HL data.
Sample weights for the women's data used the un-normalized household weights, adjusted for non-response for the women's questionnaire, and were then normalized by a constant factor so that the total weighted number of women's cases equals the total unweighted number of women's cases.
Sample weights for the children's data followed the same approach as the women's and used the un-normalized household weights, adjusted for non-response for the children's questionnaire, and were then normalized by a constant factor so that the total weighted number of children's cases equals the total unweighted number of children's cases.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The questionnaires are based on the MICS3 model questionnaire. From the MICS3 model English version, the questionnaires were translated in to Vietnamese and were pretested in one province (Bac Giang) during July 2006. Based on the results of this pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing (see Other processing), including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) During data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
e) Structural checking of SPSS data files
Detailed documentation of the editing of data can be found in the data processing guidelines in the MICS manual http://www.childinfo.org/mics/mics3/manual.php.
Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in September, 2006 and was completed in April, 2007.
Data were processed in clusters, with each cluster being processed as a complete unit through each stage of data processing. Each cluster goes through the following steps:
1) Questionnaire reception
2) Office editing and coding
3) Data entry
4) Structure and completeness checking
5) Verification entry
6) Comparison of verification data
7) Back up of raw data
8) Secondary editing
9) Edited data back up
After all clusters are processed, all data is concatenated together and then the following steps are completed for all data files:
10) Export to SPSS in 4 files (hh - household, hl - household members, wm - women, ch - children under 5)
11) Recoding of variables needed for analysis
12) Adding of sample weights
13) Calculation of wealth quintiles and merging into data
14) Structural checking of SPSS files
15) Data quality tabulations
16) Production of analysis tabulations
Details of each of these steps can be found in the data processing documentation, data editing guidelines, data processing programs in CSPro and SPSS, and tabulation guidelines in the MICS manual http://www.childinfo.org/mics/mics3/manual.php
Estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: 1) non-sampling errors and 2) sampling errors. Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in the implementation of data collection and data processing. Numerous efforts were made during implementation of the MICS - 3 to minimize this type of error, however, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents to the MICS - 3 is only one of many possible samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that different somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability in the results of the survey between all possible samples, and, although, the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. The sampling errors are measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean or percentage), which is the square root of the variance. Confidence intervals are calculated for each statistic within which the true value for the population can be assumed to fall. Plus or minus two standard errors of the statistic is used for key statistics presented in MICS, equivalent to a 95 percent confidence interval.
If the sample of respondents had been a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulae for calculating sampling errors. However, the MICS - 3 sample is the result of a two-stage stratified design, and consequently needs to use more complex formulae. The SPSS complex samples module has been used to calculate sampling errors for the MICS - 3. This module uses the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. This method is documented in the SPSS file CSDescriptives.pdf found under the Help, Algorithms options in SPSS.
Sampling errors have been calculated for a select set of statistics (all of which are proportions due to the limitations of the Taylor linearization method) for the national sample, urban and rural areas, and for each of the five regions. For each statistic, the estimate, its standard error, the coefficient of variation (or relative error -- the ratio between the standard error and the estimate), the design effect, and the square root design effect (DEFT -- the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used), as well as the 95 percent confidence intervals (+/-2 standard errors).
Other forms of data appraisal
A series of data quality tables and graphs are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
Age distribution of the household population
Age distribution of eligible women and interviewed women
Age distribution of eligible children and children for whom the mother or caretaker was interviewed
Age distribution of children under age 5 by 3 month groups
Age and period ratios at boundaries of eligibility
Percent of observations with missing information on selected variables
Presence of mother in the household and person interviewed for the under 5 questionnaire
School attendance by single year age
Sex ratio at birth among children ever born, surviving and dead by age of respondent
Distribution of women by time since last birth
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in the appendix of the final report.
The general rule for presentation of missing data in the final report tabulations is that a column is presented for missing data if the percentage of cases with missing data is 1% or more. Cases with missing data on the background characteristics (e.g. education) are included in the tables, but the missing data rows are suppressed and noted at the bottom of the tables in the report (not in the SPSS output, however).
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate research, with the condition that we receive an abstract or a detailed description of any research project that will be using the data prior to authorizing their distribution. Copies of all reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to the General Statistics Office and UNICEF.
General Statistics Office
Social and Environmental Statistics Department
Tel: (+844) 8439871; (+844) 8464348
Email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
United Nations Children's Fund
Viet Nam Country Office
81A Tran Quoc Toan,
Tel: (+844) 9425706 - 11
Fax: (+844) 9425705
Requests for access to the datasets may be made through the website www.childinfo.org.
The following statement must be used as citation: "Source of data: General Statistics Office of Viet Nam, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey: Child Development 2005-2006, Version 1.0 of the dataset, provided by UNICEF"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The General Statistical Office of Viet Nam and UNICEF provide these data to external users without any warranty or responsibility implied. The General Statistical Office of Viet Nam and UNICEFaccept no responsibility for the results and/or implications of any actions resulting from the use of these data.
Nguyen Thi Hoang Lan (Ms.)
Social and Environmental Statistics Department, General Statistics Office of Viet Nam
Producer of Viet Nam MICS archive
Customisation of Viet Nam MICS archive for childinfo.org
MICS 2006 Viet Nam v0.2
Slightly edited version of UNICEF's DDI ref. DDI-VN-UNICEF-MICS2006/2.0