The STEP (Skills Toward Employment and Productivity) project consists of a Household Surveys collection and an Employer Surveys collection.
This survey is part of the STEP Household Surveys collection. So far, two waves have been implemented in 15 countries.
The first wave started in September 2011 and was completed in December 2013. Wave 1 countries are: Bolivia, Colombia, Sri Lanka, Lao PDR, Vietnam, the Yunnan Province in China, Ghana, and Ukraine. The second wave started in August 2012 and was completed in June 2014. Wave 2 countries are: Armenia, Georgia, Macedonia, and Kenya. The Third Wave 3 countries are: Kosovo, Serbia, and the Philippines.
The STEP Measurement program is the first ever initiative to generate internationally comparable data on skills available in developing countries. The program implements standardized surveys to gather information on the supply and distribution of skills and the demand for skills in labor market of low-income countries.
The uniquely-designed Household Survey includes modules that measure the cognitive skills (reading, writing and numeracy), socio-emotional skills (personality, behavior and preferences) and job-specific skills (subset of transversal skills with direct job relevance) of a representative sample of adults aged 15 to 64 living in urban areas, whether they work or not. The cognitive skills module also incorporates a direct assessment of reading literacy based on the Survey of Adults Skills instruments. Modules also gather information about family, health and language.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The units of analysis are the individual respondents and households. A household roster is undertaken at the start of the survey and the individual respondent is randomly selected among all household members aged 15 to 64 included. The random selection process was designed by the STEP team and compliance with the procedure is carefully monitored during fieldwork.
Version 01, edited anonymous dataset(s) for public distribution
The scope of the study includes:
- Household demographic characteristics
- Dwelling characteristics
- Education and training
- Job skill requirements
- Personality, behavior and preferences
- Language and family background
- Reading literacy test assessment
The STEP survey was limited to the Urban Areas.
The target population is defined as all non-institutionalized persons aged 15 to 64 (inclusive) living in private dwellings in the urban areas of the country at the time of the data collection. This includes all residents, except foreign diplomats and non-nationals working for international organizations.
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
The World Bank
STEP Task Team Leader
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Australian Government
Education Testing Services
The Philippines sample design is a 4-stage sample design. There was no explicit stratification but the sample is implicitly stratified by Urban Region. Implicit stratification was achieved by sorting the PSUs by Urban Region and selecting a systematic sample of PSUs.
- First Stage Sample: The primary sample unit (PSU) is a Barangay Segment. The first stage units were selected by the World Bank Survey Methodologist.
Each PSU is uniquely defined by the sample frame variable ‘SEG#_BGY’, i.e., the Segment ID# within a Barangay. The sampling objective was to conduct interviews in 200 PSUs. In addition, 25 extra PSUs were selected for use in case it was impossible to conduct any interviews in one or more initially selected PSUs. (N.B. None of the 25 extra PSUs were required to be activated.)
- Second Stage Sample: The second stage sample unit (SSU) is a dwelling. The sampling objective was to obtain interviews at 15 dwellings within each selected PSU. The dwellings were selected in each PSU using a systematic random method.
- Third Stage Sample: The third stage sample unit is a household. The sampling objective is to select one household within each selected dwelling. The households are randomly selected with equal probability in each PSU.
N.B. The Philippines firm indicated that all selected dwellings contained one household, i.e., there were no multiple household dwellings in the STEP sample.
- Fourth Stage Sample: The third stage sample unit was an individual aged 15-64 (inclusive). The sampling objective was to select one individual with equal probability from each selected household.
The Philippines firm’s sampling objective is to obtain interviews from 3000 individuals in the urban areas of Philippines.
An overall response rate of 94.8% was achieved in the Philippines STEP Survey.
While the Philippines four-stage sample design greatly enhanced the operational feasibility of data collection, it resulted in differential probabilities of selection for the selected persons. Consequently, each selected person in the survey does not necessarily represent the same number of persons in the target population. To account for differential probabilities of selection due to the nature of the design and to ensure accurate survey estimates, STEP requires a basic sampling weight for each person that participated in the survey.
Details on weighting are available in the "STEP Survey Weighting Procedures Summary" provided under Related Materials.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The role of the Team Supervisors (Supervisors) is to organize and direct the data collection at the PSU level, including any logistical and technical details, and to ensure that the data collected is of the required quality. The Supervisors have the following specific tasks:
1. Public relations
2. Coordination of the fieldwork
4. Coordinate the assignment of the Literacy Booklets
5. Quality control
6. Communications with headquarters
The aim of all the checks mentioned in this Section is twofold:
1. To keep track of the evolution of the fieldwork (e.g. completion/use of reserve household rates, timing)
2. To inform about the quality of data collection work: The Supervisor will use the information gathered in the field in order to improve the work of the interviewers (where necessary). If major deviations are found in the work of a particular interviewer, the Supervisor should be ready to request a replacement interviewer, and that interviewer’s work will have to be re-done.
The checks are of upmost importance, especially at the beginning of the fieldwork when errors will undoubtedly be made. It is therefore essential to notice the errors early, in order to correct them and teach the interviewers the proper protocol if necessary. It is also important that the Supervisors communicate these errors to the Project Manager, so all the other Supervisors are informed and are prepared if the same situation arise in their PSUs.
All the supervision forms must be sent to the Headquarters, together with the finalized questionnaires, once the fieldwork is completed in a certain PSU.
Data Collection Notes
The fieldwork will be organized into independent teams, each consisting of a supervisor (team leader) and interviewers (ideally three interviewers, but not more than 4 interviewers per team supervisor) who move from one PSU to another during the data collection period. It is strongly recommended to work with a few teams working for a longer period, rather than many teams working for a short period.
The length of the survey is inversely proportional to the number of field staff required to complete the work. There are many benefits for limiting the number of field staff, including:
- each interviewer conducts a large number of interviews, and as a result becomes highly skilled
- for the headquarters team, supervision and administration are easier with a smaller number of field teams
- overall administration costs are lower with fewer field teams
- about the same amount of time is needed for staff training regardless of the duration of the survey
The survey plan should take into account the sample size and the time needed for each field team to complete one PSU. For a survey such as the STEP Household Survey, the time needed to complete the fieldwork would be around 3 to 5 months if the number of teams is approximately 8-12 and there are about 200 PSUs.
Etude Economique Conseil
The STEP survey instruments include:
- Background Questionnaire developed by the WB STEP team
- Reading Literacy Assessment developed by Educational Testing Services (ETS).
All countries adapted and translated both instruments following the STEP Technical Standards: 2 independent translators adapted and translated the Background Questionnaire and Reading Literacy Assessment, while reconciliation was carried out by a third translator. The WB STEP team and ETS collaborated closely with the survey firms during the process and reviewed the adaptation and translation (using a back translation).
STEP Data Management Process:
1. Raw data is sent by the survey firm. All coding and scoring (of the Reading Literacy Assessment booklets) is carried out by the survey firms, following STEP Technical Standards. Training was provided to the survey firms at the start of the project.
2. The WB STEP team runs data checks on the Background Questionnaire data. ETS runs data checks on the Reading Literacy Assessment data. Comments and questions are sent back to the survey firm.
3. The survey firm reviews comments and questions. When a data entry error is identified, the survey firm corrects the data.
4. The WB STEP team and ETS check the data files are clean. This might require additional iterations with the survey firm.
5. Once the data has been checked and cleaned, the WB STEP team computes the weights. Weights are computed by the STEP team to ensure consistency across sampling methodologies.
6. ETS scales the Reading Literacy Assessment data.
7. The WB STEP team merges the Background Questionnaire data with the Reading Literacy Assessment data and computes derived variables. Detailed information data processing in STEP surveys is provided in the "Guidelines for STEP Data Entry Programs", provided as an external resource.
Estimates of Sampling Error
A weighting documentation was prepared for each participating country and provides some information on sampling errors. All country weighting documentations are provided as an external resource.
Education Global Practice
The World Bank
Social Protection and Jobs Global Practice
The World Bank
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Bank. Philippines - STEP Skills Measurement Household Survey 2015-2016 (Wave 3). Ref. PHL_2015_STEP-HH_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.