Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) Database 2017
Hong Kong SAR, China
Other Household Survey [hh/oth]
In 2011 the World Bank—with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation—launched the Global Findex database, the world’s most comprehensive data set on how adults save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. Drawing on survey data collected in collaboration with Gallup, Inc., the Global Findex database covers more than 140 economies around the world. The initial survey round was followed by a second one in 2014 and by a third in 2017.
Compiled using nationally representative surveys of more than 150,000 adults age 15 and above in over 140 economies, the 2017 Global Findex database includes updated indicators on access to and use of formal and informal financial services. It has additional data on the use of financial technology (or fintech), including the use of mobile phones and the internet to conduct financial transactions.
Financial inclusion is critical in reducing poverty and achieving inclusive economic growth. When people can participate in the financial system, they are better able to start and expand businesses, invest in their children’s education, and absorb financial shocks. Yet prior to 2011, little was known about the extent of financial inclusion and the degree to which such groups as the poor, women, and rural residents were excluded from formal financial systems.
By collecting detailed indicators about how adults around the world manage their day-to-day finances, the Global Findex allows policy makers, researchers, businesses, and development practitioners to track how the use of financial services has changed over time. The database can also be used to identify gaps in access to the formal financial system and design policies to expand financial inclusion.
Kind of Data
Observation data/ratings [obs]
Unit of Analysis
This version differs from version 1 in that it includes one or both of the following additional variables from the questionnaire, that had been left out of version 1:
- fin48 “Has a national ID”
- mobileowner “Owns a mobile for personal calls”
The Global Findex database provides more than 200 indicators on topics such as account ownership, payments, saving, credit, and financial resilience. Global Findex data is available for more than 140 countries around the world which make up 97% of the world's population. Data is available for 2017, 2014, and 2011.
The target population is the civilian, non-institutionalized population 15 years and above.
Producers and sponsors
Development Research Group, Finance and Private Sector Development Unit
Carried out the survey in association with its annual Gallup World Poll.
Development Research Group, World Bank
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
The indicators in the 2017 Global Findex database are drawn from survey data covering almost 150,000 people in 144 economies-representing more than 97 percent of the world’s population (see table A.1 of the Global Findex Database 2017 Report for a list of the economies included). The survey was carried out over the 2017 calendar year by Gallup, Inc., as part of its Gallup World Poll, which since 2005 has annually conducted surveys of approximately 1,000 people in each of more than 160 economies and in over 150 languages, using randomly selected, nationally representative samples. The target population is the entire civilian, noninstitutionalized population age 15 and above. Interview procedure Surveys are conducted face to face in economies where telephone coverage represents less than 80 percent of the population or where this is the customary methodology. In most economies the fieldwork is completed in two to four weeks.
In economies where face-to-face surveys are conducted, the first stage of sampling is the identification of primary sampling units. These units are stratified by population size, geography, or both, and clustering is achieved through one or more stages of sampling. Where population information is available, sample selection is based on probabilities proportional to population size; otherwise, simple random sampling is used. Random route procedures are used to select sampled households. Unless an outright refusal occurs, interviewers make up to three attempts to survey the sampled household. To increase the probability of contact and completion, attempts are made at different times of the day and, where possible, on different days. If an interview cannot be obtained at the initial sampled household, a simple substitution method is used.
Respondents are randomly selected within the selected households. Each eligible household member is listed and the handheld survey device randomly selects the household member to be interviewed. For paper surveys, the Kish grid method is used to select the respondent. In economies where cultural restrictions dictate gender matching, respondents are randomly selected from among all eligible adults of the interviewer’s gender.
In economies where telephone interviewing is employed, random digit dialing or a nationally representative list of phone numbers is used. In most economies where cell phone penetration is high, a dual sampling frame is used. Random selection of respondents is achieved by using either the latest birthday or household enumeration method. At least three attempts are made to reach a person in each household, spread over different days and times of day.
The sample size was 1007.
Data weighting is used to ensure a nationally representative sample for each economy. Final weights consist of the base sampling weight, which corrects for unequal probability of selection based on household size, and the poststratification weight, which corrects for sampling and nonresponse error. Poststratification weights use economy-level population statistics on gender and age and, where reliable data are available, education or socioeconomic status.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Landline and Cellular Telephone
Data Collection Notes
Interviews were conducted in the following language: Chinese
The questionnaire was designed by the World Bank, in conjunction with a Technical Advisory Board composed of leading academics, practitioners, and policy makers in the field of financial inclusion. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Gallup Inc. also provided valuable input. The questionnaire was piloted in multiple countries, using focus groups, cognitive interviews, and field testing. The questionnaire is available in more than 140 languages upon request.
Questions on cash on delivery, saving using an informal savings club or person outside the family, domestic remittances, and agricultural payments are only asked in developing economies and few other selected countries. The question on mobile money accounts was only asked in economies that were part of the Mobile Money for the Unbanked (MMU) database of the GSMA at the time the interviews were being held.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimates of standard errors (which account for sampling error) vary by country and indicator. For country-specific margins of error, please refer to the Methodology section and corresponding table in Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, Leora Klapper, Dorothe Singer, Saniya Ansar, and Jake Hess. 2018. The Global Findex Database 2017: Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution. Washington, DC: World Bank
Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, Leora Klapper, Dorothe Singer, Saniya Ansar, and Jake Hess. 2018. The Global Findex Database 2017: Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution. Washington, DC: World Bank. Ref: HKG_2017_FINDEX_v02_M. Accessed at [url] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.