An Enterprise Survey (ES) is a firm-level survey of a representative sample of an economy's private sector. Firm-level surveys have been conducted since 1998 by different units within the World Bank. Since 2005-06, most data collection efforts have been centralized within the Enterprise Analysis Unit (FPDEA). The Enterprise Surveys are conducted across all geographic regions and cover small, medium, and large companies. Data are used to create indicators that benchmark the quality of the business and investment climate across countries.
The ES currently cover over 160,000 firms in 148 countries, of which 139 have been surveyed following the standard methodology. This allows for better comparisons across countries and across time. Data are used to create statistically significant business environment indicators that are comparable across countries. The ES are also used to build a panel of enterprise data that will make it possible to track changes in the business environment over time and allow, for example, impact assessments of reforms.
The documentation covers Enterprise Survey panel datasets that were collected in Chad in 2009 and 2018. The Enterprise Survey is a firm-level survey of a representative sample of an economy's private sector. The surveys cover a broad range of business environment topics including access to finance, corruption, infrastructure, crime, competition, and performance measures. The objective of the Enterprise Survey is to gain an understanding of what firms experience in the private sector.
As part of its strategic goal of building a climate for investment, job creation, and sustainable growth, the World Bank has promoted improving the business environment as a key strategy for development, which has led to a systematic effort in collecting enterprise data across countries. The Enterprise Surveys (ES) are an ongoing World Bank project in collecting both objective data based on firms' experiences and enterprises' perception of the environment in which they operate.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The primary sampling unit of the study is the establishment. An establishment is a physical location where business is carried out and where industrial operations take place or services are provided. A firm may be composed of one or more establishments. For example, a brewery may have several bottling plants and several establishments for distribution. For the purposes of this survey an establishment must make its own financial decisions and have its own financial statements separate from those of the firm. An establishment must also have its own management and control over its payroll.
The Enterprise Surveys panel datasets have the following common format:
• Variable panel allows easy identification of panel observations
• Variable panelid is the same across the waves for the same firm
• Variable eligibility<year> reports eligibility status of all firms interviewed in the previous wave as of the <year> of the latest wave, for example, in 2013-2016 panel, eligibility2016 reports status as of 2016 of all firms interviewed in 2013
• Wherever possible variables are matched across waves. If needed, matches are made by converting variable names in older waves to variable names in the most recent wave
• Due to methodological changes and evolution of the survey instrument it is not possible to match all variables in the datasets
• Variables that are not matched across waves are named as _<year>_<variable>, with the year in which the variable was collected (e.g. _2013_date)
• It is recommended that users thoroughly familiarize themselves with the questionnaires from each of the years contained in the dataset before proceeding with analysis
• Some monetary unit variables in 2002 and 2005 surveys (in US currency) are converted into the local currency units (LCU) using the market, period average, exchange rates. The sources of the exchange rates are the International Financial Statistics (IFS - IMF) websites.
• Weights are representative of the universe for the year that the firm was interviewed. They are not panel weights.
The Chad Enterprise Surveys covered the following topics:
- General information of the firm/ establishment
- Infrastructure and services
- Sales and supplies
- Management practices
- Degree of competition
- Land and permits
- Business-Government relations
- Business environment
The whole population, or universe of the study, is the non-agricultural economy. It comprises: all manufacturing sectors according to the group classification of ISIC Revision 3.1: (group D), construction sector (group F), services sector (groups G and H), and transport, storage, and communications sector (group I). Note that this definition excludes the following sectors: financial intermediation (group J), real estate and renting activities (group K, except sub-sector 72, IT, which was added to the population under study), and all public or utilities-sectors.
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
The World Bank
The samples for 2009 and 2018 Chad Enterprise Surveys were selected using stratified random sampling, following the methodology explained in the <a href='http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/~/media/GIAWB/EnterpriseSurveys/Documents/Methodology/Sampling_Note.pdf'> Sampling Note</a>.
Two levels of stratification were used in the Chad 2009 ES sample: firm sector and firm size. The Industry stratification was designed as follows: the universe was stratified into manufacturing and services industries. The initial sample design had a target of 75 interviews in manufacturing and 75 interviews in services.
In 2018 Chad ES, three levels of stratification were used: industry, establishment size, and region. The industry stratification was designed in the way that follows: the universe was stratified as into manufacturing and services industries- Manufacturing (ISIC Rev. 3.1 codes 15 - 37), and Services (ISIC codes 45, 50-52, 55, 60-64, and 72). Regional stratification did not take place for the Chad ES.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The surveys were implemented following a 2-stage procedure. Typically, first a screener questionnaire was applied over the phone to determine eligibility and to make appointments. Then a face-to-face interview took place with the Manager/Owner/Director of each establishment. However, sometimes the phone numbers were unavailable in the sample frame, and thus the enumerators applied the screeners in person.
Two questionnaires - Manufacturing amd Services were used to collect the survey data.
The Questionnaires have common questions (core module) and respectfully additional manufacturing- and services-specific questions. The eligible manufacturing industries have been surveyed using the Manufacturing questionnaire (includes the core module, plus manufacturing specific questions). Retail firms have been interviewed using the Services questionnaire (includes the core module plus retail specific questions) and the residual eligible services have been covered using the Services questionnaire (includes the core module).
Enterprise Analysis Unit
The World Bank
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
Aggregate indicators based on Enterprise Survey data are available to the public at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org
Firm-level data is also available to the public free-of-charge. In order to access the data, users must agree to abide by a strict confidentiality agreement available through Enterprise Analysis Unit website by clicking on "External users register here" at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/Portal
Where necessary please site the source as "Enterprise Analysis Unit - World Bank Group https://www.enterprisesurveys.org"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (November 2018)