Demographic and Health Survey (Standard) - DHS VII
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are nationally-representative household surveys that provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, and nutrition.
The 2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) is the seventh survey of its kind, following those implemented in 1990, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2009, and 2012. As with the prior surveys, the main objectives of the 2017-18 JPFHS were to provide up-to-date information on fertility and childhood mortality levels; fertility preferences; awareness, approval, and use of family planning methods; maternal and child health; and knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Additionally, for the first time in Jordan, the 2017-18 JPFHS included a male survey. The survey collected information on men’s basic demographic and social characteristics, on their knowledge and use of family planning methods, and on their knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
The survey involved a nationally representative sample consisting of 19,400 residential households. The survey sample was designed to produce representative results for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas separately, for the three regions, for each of the 12 governorates of the country, and for three nationality domains: the Jordanian population, the Syrian population, and the population of other nationalities.
The primary objective of the 2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) is to provide up-to-date estimates of basic demographic and health indicators.
Specifically, the 2017-18 JPFHS:
- Collected data at the national level that allowed calculation of key demographic indicators
- Explored the direct and indirect factors that determine levels of and trends in fertility and childhood mortality
- Measured levels of contraceptive knowledge and practice
- Collected data on key aspects of family health, including immunisation coverage among children, the prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea and other diseases among children under age 5, and maternity care indicators such as antenatal visits and assistance at delivery among ever-married women
- Obtained data on child feeding practices, including breastfeeding, and conducted anthropometric measurements to assess the nutritional status of children under age 5 and ever-married women age 15-49
- Conducted haemoglobin testing on children age 6-59 months and ever-married women age 15-49 to provide information on the prevalence of anaemia among these groups
- Collected data on knowledge and attitudes of ever-married women and men about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS
- Obtained data on ever-married women’s experience of emotional, physical, and sexual violence
- Obtained data on household health expenditures
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children age 0-5
- Woman age 15-49
- Man age 15-59
The data dictionary was generated from hierarchical data that was downloaded from the The DHS Program website (http://dhsprogram.com).
The 2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey covered the following topics:
• Usual members and visitors in the selected households
• Background information on each person listed, such as relationship to head of the household, age, sex, marital status, survivorship and residence of biological parents, school attendance, birth registration, and smoking.
• Characteristics of the household's dwelling unit, such as type of housing unit, main source of water, time taken to get water and come back, water treatment, type of toilet facility and location, type of fuel used for cooking, materials used for the floor, roof and walls of the house, and possessions of durable goods.
• Child discipline
• Domestic violence
• Inpatient health expenditures
• Outpatient health expenditures
• Background characteristics (including age, education, and media exposure)
• Birth history and childhood mortality
• Family planning including knowledge, use, and sources of contraceptive methods
• Fertility preferences
• Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
• Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices
• Vaccinations and childhood illnesses
• Early childhood development
• Women’s work and husbands’ background characteristics
• Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS
• Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to other health issues (e.g., smoking)
• Domestic violence
• Respondent's background
• Marriage and sexual activity
• Fertility preferences
• Employment and gender roles
• Other health issues
• Weight, height and hemoglobin measurement for children age 0-5
• Weight, height, hemoglobin measurement and HIV testing for women age 15-49
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), children age 0-5 years, women age 15-49 years and men age 15-59 years resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Department of Statistics (DoS)
Government of Jordan
Provided technical assistance through The DHS Program
Government of Jordan
Funded the survey
United States Agency for International Development
Funded the survey
United Nations Population Fund
Funded the survey
United Nations Children’s Fund
Funded the survey
The sampling frame used for the 2017-18 JPFHS is based on Jordan's Population and Housing Census (JPHC) frame for 2015. The current survey is designed to produce results representative of the country as a whole, of urban and rural areas separately, of three regions, of 12 administrative governorates, and of three national groups: Jordanians, Syrians, and a group combined from various other nationalities.
The sample for the 2017-18 JPFHS is a stratified sample selected in two stages from the 2015 census frame. Stratification was achieved by separating each governorate into urban and rural areas. Each of the Syrian camps in the governorates of Zarqa and Mafraq formed its own sampling stratum. In total, 26 sampling strata were constructed. Samples were selected independently in each sampling stratum, through a two-stage selection process, according to the sample allocation. Before the sample selection, the sampling frame was sorted by district and sub-district within each sampling stratum. By using a probability-proportional-to-size selection for the first stage of selection, an implicit stratification and proportional allocation were achieved at each of the lower administrative levels.
In the first stage, 970 clusters were selected with probability proportional to cluster size, with the cluster size being the number of residential households enumerated in the 2015 JPHC. The sample allocation took into account the precision consideration at the governorate level and at the level of each of the three special domains. After selection of PSUs and clusters, a household listing operation was carried out in all selected clusters. The resulting household lists served as the sampling frame for selecting households in the second stage. A fixed number of 20 households per cluster were selected with an equal probability systematic selection from the newly created household listing.
For further details on sample design, see Appendix A of the final report.
A total of 19,384 households were selected for the sample, of which 19,136 were found to be occupied at the time of the fieldwork. Of the occupied households, 18,802 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 98%.
In the interviewed households, 14,870 women were identified as eligible for an individual interview; interviews were completed with 14,689 women, yielding a response rate of 99%. A total of 6,640 eligible men were identified in the sampled households and 6,429 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 97%. Response rates for both women and men were similar across urban and rural areas.
A spreadsheet containing all of the sampling parameters and selection probabilities was prepared to facilitate the calculation of sampling weights. Sampling weights were adjusted for household nonresponse as well as individual nonresponse. Therefore, two sets of weights were calculated for the women’s survey: one for households and one for the women’s individual survey. There were also two sets of weights for the male survey, one for the households selected for the male survey and one for the male individual survey. Two special sets of weights were also calculated, one for the domestic violence module and one for the child discipline module, for which only one eligible individual was selected per household. The final weights were normalised in order to provide total numbers of unweighted cases equal to total numbers of weighted cases at the national level for both household weights and individual weights.
It is important to note that the normalised weights are relative weights, which are valid for estimating means, proportions, and ratios but are not valid for estimating population totals and/or pooled data. Also, the number of weighted cases obtained by using the normalised weights has no direct relation with the precision of the estimates for any domain. Especially in oversampled areas, the number of weighted cases will be much smaller than the number of unweighted cases; however, it is the latter numbers that are directly related to survey precision.
For further details on sampling weights, see Appendix A.4 of the final report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Data collection took place over a 4-month period, from early October 2017 to January 2018. Fieldwork was carried out by 27 field teams, each consisting of one team supervisor, three female interviewers, one male interviewer, one biomarker measurer, and one driver. Electronic data files were transferred to the DOS central office in Amman every few days via the secured Internet file streaming system (IFSS). Staff from the DOS and specialists from The DHS Program coordinated and supervised fieldwork activities.
Four questionnaires were used for the 2017-18 JPFHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, the Man’s Questionnaire, and the Biomarker Questionnaire. These questionnaires, based on The DHS Program’s standard Demographic and Health Survey questionnaires, were adapted to reflect population and health issues relevant to Jordan. After all questionnaires were finalised in English, they were translated into Arabic.
All electronic data files for the 2017-18 JPFHS were transferred via IFSS to the DOS central office in Amman, where they were stored on a password-protected computer. The data processing operation included secondary editing, which required resolution of computer-identified inconsistencies and coding of open-ended questions. Data editing was accomplished using CSPro software. During the duration of fieldwork, tables were generated to check various data quality parameters, and specific feedback was given to the teams to improve performance. Secondary editing and data processing were initiated in October 2017 and completed in February 2018.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: nonsampling errors and sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) to minimise this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2017-18 JPFHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and sample size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability among all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
Sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95% of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected by simple random sampling, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2017-18 JPFHS sample was the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulas. Sampling errors are computed using SAS programmes developed by ICF International. These programmes use the Taylor linearisation method to estimate variances for survey estimates that are means, proportions, or ratios. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
The Taylor linearisation method treats any percentage or average as a ratio estimate, r = y/x, where y represents the total sample value for variable y, and x represents the total number of cases in the group or subgroup under consideration.
A more detailed description of estimates of sampling errors are presented in Appendix B of the survey final report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
See details of the data quality tables in Appendix C of the survey final report.
Request Dataset Access
The following applies to DHS, MIS, AIS and SPA survey datasets (Surveys, GPS, and HIV).
To request dataset access, you must first be a registered user of the website. You must then create a new research project request. The request must include a project title and a description of the analysis you propose to perform with the data.
The requested data should only be used for the purpose of the research or study. To request the same or different data for another purpose, a new research project request should be submitted. The DHS Program will normally review all data requests within 24 hours (Monday - Friday) and provide notification if access has been granted or additional project information is needed before access can be granted.
DATASET ACCESS APPROVAL PROCESS
Access to DHS, MIS, AIS and SPA survey datasets (Surveys, HIV, and GPS) is requested and granted by country. This means that when approved, full access is granted to all unrestricted survey datasets for that country. Access to HIV and GIS datasets requires an online acknowledgment of the conditions of use.
A dataset request must include contact information, a research project title, and a description of the analysis you propose to perform with the data.
A few datasets are restricted and these are noted. Access to restricted datasets is requested online as with other datasets. An additional consent form is required for some datasets, and the form will be emailed to you upon authorization of your account. For other restricted surveys, permission must be granted by the appropriate implementing organizations, before The DHS Program can grant access. You will be emailed the information for contacting the implementing organizations. A few restricted surveys are authorized directly within The DHS Program, upon receipt of an email request.
When The DHS Program receives authorization from the appropriate organizations, the user will be contacted, and the datasets made available by secure FTP.
GPS/HIV Datasets/Other Biomarkers
Once downloaded, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of The DHS Program. All reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to The DHS Program Data Archive in a Portable Document Format (pdf) or a printed hard copy.
Datasets are made available for download by survey. You will be presented with a list of surveys for which you have been granted dataset access. After selecting a survey, a list of all available datasets for that survey will be displayed, including all survey, GPS, and HIV data files. However, only data types for which you have been granted access will be accessible. To download, simply click on the files that you wish to download and a "File Download" prompt will guide you through the remaining steps.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (March 2019). Metadata is excerpted from "Jordan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18" Report.