Since its inception in 1995, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, known as MICS, has become the largest source of statistically sound and internationally comparable data on women and children worldwide. In countries as diverse as Costa Rica, Mali and Qatar, trained fieldwork teams conduct face-to-face interviews with household members on a variety of topics – focusing mainly on those issues that directly affect the lives of children and women. MICS was a major source of data on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators and will continue to be a major data source during the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda to measure Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) indicators.
Under coordination and leadership of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Public Housing, the General Bureau of Statistics and UNICEF, the MICS was executed in Suriname for the fourth time. The previous rounds of MICS were implemented in 2000, 2006 and 2010.
The Suriname 2018 MICS results are critically important for the purposes of SDG monitoring, as the survey produces information on 31 global SDG indicators. Since the Government is in the process of drafting the development indicators for Suriname aligned with the SDG's, the MICS data is a valuable source of information for planning and monitoring purposes.
The Suriname 2018 MICS has as its primary objectives:
- To provide high quality data for assessing the situation of children, adolescents, women and households in Suriname;
- To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward national goals, as a basis for future action;
- To collect disaggregated data for the identification of disparities, to inform policies aimed at social inclusion of the most vulnerable;
- To validate data from other sources and the results of focused interventions;
- To generate data on national and global SDG indicators;
- To generate internationally comparable data for the assessment of the progress made in various areas, and to put additional efforts in those areas that require more attention;
- To generate behavioural and attitudinal data not available in other data sources.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2018 includes:
- HOUSEHOLD: List of Household Members, Education, Household Characteristics, Social Transfers, Household Energy Use, Water and Sanitation and Handwashing.
- WOMEN/MEN: Woman's Background, Mass Media and ICT, Fertility [M]/Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post-natal Health Checks, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence, Victimization, Marriage/Union, Adult Functioning, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS and Alcohol Use.
- CHILDREN (AGE 5-17 YEARS): Child's Background, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Child Functioning, Parental Involvement and Foundational Learning Skills.
- CHILDREN (UNDER 5): Under-Five's Background, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Child Discipline, Child Functioning and Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake.
The sample for the Suriname 2018 MICS was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level and for urban, rural coastal and rural interior areas and for all the 10 districts, namely: Paramaribo, Wanica, Nickerie, Coronie, Saramacca, Commewijne, Marowijne, Para, Brokopondo and Sipaliwini.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women age 15-49 years, all men age 15-49 years, all children under 5 and children age 5-17 years living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Ministry of Social Affairs and Public Housing
United Nations Children’s Fund
General Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Children’s Fund
The Suriname 2018 MICS sample was selected based on the sample frame from the 2012 Census. Based upon this sample, GBS conducted a listing exercise in the field, in order to update the second stage sampling frame for selecting the sample households. In the ten districts of Suriname, three settlement types form the basis for the establishment of strata that ought to reflect geographical spaces that are more likely to be internally homogeneous when found within the same settlement type but different when found in different settlement types.
According to settlement types, three strata can be distinguished across the ten districts of Suriname:
- An urban stratum.
Urban areas include Paramaribo, Wanica, Nickerie (Nw. Nickerie), and Commewijne (Meerzorg and Tamanredjo).
- A rural stratum in the coastal area.
Rural Coastal areas include the remainder of Nickerie, the remainder of Commewijne, Coronie, Saramacca, Para, and Marowijne.
- A rural stratum in the interior.
Rural Interior areas include Brokopondo and Sipaliwini.
The urban and rural "ressorten" within each district were identified as the main sampling strata and the sample of households was selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of census enumeration areas were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. After a household listing was carried out within the 470 selected enumeration areas, a systematic sample of 20 households was drawn in each sample enumeration area, for a total target sample size of 9,400 households. All 470 enumeration areas were visited during the fieldwork period.
Even though the target was 9,400 households the completed number of households visited was 9,508. This was due to the following:
- Sometimes it was obvious during the listing phase that a dwelling was occupied, but the amount of household in that dwelling was unknown at the time due to not-at-home cases during listing.
- Changes in the number of households that occupied a dwelling during the listing phase, as compared to the interviewing phase.
When more than one household was encountered in the selected dwelling during the interview phase, the instruction was given to the interviewers to interview all these households.
A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in the Official Report (Appendix A: Sample Design). This document is available under the "DOCUMENTATION" tab.
Of the 9508 households selected for the sample, 8771 were found occupied. Of these, 7915 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 90.2 percent.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Team supervisors were responsible for the daily monitoring of fieldwork. Mandatory re-interviewing was implemented on one household per interviewer per cluster. Daily observations of interviewer skills and performance were conducted.
During the fieldwork period, each team was visited multiple times by survey management team members and field visits were arranged for UNICEF MICS team members.
Throughout the fieldwork, field check tables (FCTs) were produced weekly for analysis and action with field teams. The FCTs were customized versions of the standard tables produced by the MICS Programme.
Data Collection Notes
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
MICS surveys utilise Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The data collection application was based on the CSPro (Census and Survey Processing System) software, Version 6.3, including a MICS dedicated data management platform. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS programme were adapted to the Suriname 2018 MICS final questionnaires and used throughout. The CAPI application was tested in Paramaribo and Wanica in February 2018. Based on the results of the CAPI-test, modifications were made to the questionnaires and application.
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 22 days in February and March 2018. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Participants first completed full training on paper questionnaires, followed by training in the CAPI application. The trainees spent 4 days in field practice and one day on a full pilot survey in Paramaribo. The training agenda was based on the template MICS 6 training agenda.
Measurers received dedicated training on anthropometric measurements and water quality testing for a total of 3 days and practiced these in the 4 days of field practice and pilot survey.
Field Supervisors attended additional training on the duties of team supervision and responsibilities.
The data was collected by 10 teams; each team comprised of 3 or 4 interviewers, one driver, one measurer and one supervisor. Fieldwork began on 27 March 2018 and concluded on 11 September 2018. Data was collected using tablet computers running the Windows 10 operating system, utilising a Bluetooth application for field operations, enabling transfer of assignments and completed questionnaires between the supervisor's and interviewer's tablets.
Six sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire to collect basic demographic information, the household, and the dwelling; 2) a water quality testing questionnaire administered in 5 households in each cluster of the sample; 3) a questionnaire for individual women administered in each household to all women age 15-49 years; 4) a questionnaire for individual men administered in every second household to all men age 15-49 years; 5) an under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers (or caretakers) of all children under 5 living in the household; and 6) a questionnaire for children age 5-17 years, administered to the mother (or caretaker) of one randomly selected child age 5-17 years living in the household.
Data were received at the central office of the General Bureau of Statistics via Internet File Streaming System (IFSS) integrated into the management application on the supervisors' tablets. Whenever logistically possible, synchronization took place daily. The central office communicated application updates to field teams through this system.
During data collection and following the completion of fieldwork, data were edited according to the editing process described in detail in the Guidelines for Secondary Editing, a customized version of the standard MICS 6 documentation.
Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 23. The model syntax and tabulation plan developed by UNICEF were customized and used for this purpose.
Unique identifiers such as location and names collected during interviews were removed from datasets to ensure privacy. These anonymized data files are made available on the MICS website and can be freely downloaded for legitimate research purposes. Users are required to submit final research to entities listed in the included readme file, strictly for information purposes.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sample of respondents selected in the Suriname 2018 MICS is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results based on the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. For survey indicators that are means, proportions or ratios, the Taylor series linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. For more complex statistics, such as fertility and mortality rates, the Jack knife repeated replication method is used for standard error estimation.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value (r) of the indicator and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling based on the same sample size. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design of the survey is as efficient as a simple random sample for a particular indicator, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval which contains the true value of the indicator for the population, with a specified level of confidence. For MICS results 95% confidence intervals are used, which is the standard for this type of survey. The concept of the 95% confidence interval can be understood in this way: if many repeated samples of identical size and design were taken and the confidence interval computed for each sample, then 95% of these intervals would contain the true value of the indicator.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, programs developed in CSPro Version 5.0 and SPSS Version 23 Complex Samples module have been used.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate research, with the condition that we receive a description of the objectives of any research project that will be using the data prior to authorizing their distribution.
Copies of all reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to the following:
1. Name: Naomi Caupain,MICS Survey coordinator
Affiliation: General Bureau of Statistics, Research and Planning
Address: Klipstenenstraat 5
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Ministry of Social Affairs and Public Housing, United Nations Children's Fund. Suriname- Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2018. Ref. SUR_2018_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.