Survey Data for WP9269: Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma 2015-2016
Sexual harassment on a woman’s commute is pervasive and widens the gender wage gap. To capture the economic costs of this violence, we randomize the price of a women-reserved "safe space" in Rio de Janeiro. We recruit 363 women riders to crowdsource information on their behavior and experience across 22,000 rides. Women riding in the public space experience harassment once a week. A fifth of riders are willing to forgo the equivalent of a 20% fare subsidy to ride in the "safe space". Randomly assigning riders to the "safe space" reduces the incidence of physical harassment by 50%, implying a cost of avoiding physical harassment of $1.45 per incident. While the reserved space is safer in relative terms, Implicit Association Tests reveal that commuters associate women riding in the public space with more openness to sexual advances. The welfare implications of creating women-reserved spaces are ambiguous.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area
Producers and sponsors
Development Impact Evaluation
World Bank Group
Dates of Data Collection
First Wave of Rider Recruitment
Second Wave of Rider Recruitment
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Data on metro rides was crowd-sourced through a custom-made app during rush hour (Monday-Friday, 6AM-9AM and 5PM-8PM). A total of 363 women commuters and 51 men commuters were recruited to participate in the study through online social media and networks, referrals, and flyers distributed at the train stations. The recruiting material invited respondents to download a smartphone application and respond to survey questions regarding their experience with the SuperVia (Rio suburban metro system). None of the recruitment material mentioned gender, harassment or the reserved space. Women riders reported their behavior and experience across 22,000 rides, and men riders collected data on crowding and enforcement of the gender reservation policy from the metro platform.
A CAPI survey and IAT test were also administered with a random sample of metro riders who did not participate in the crowd-sourced data collection. Two woman enumerators administered the survey at the platforms and one man enumerator administered the IAT at the tent location. There were 5 sets of platforms covering the lines that departures from Central. The enumerators covered the lines in a randomized order. That order was randomized in Stata and shared with the platforms enumerators at the beginning of each day.
Please refer to the Platform Survey and IAT Protocol and the Ethics document provided as supporting documentation for more information.
DIME, World Bank
DIME, World Bank
DIME, World Bank
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Kondylis, F (World Bank), A. Legovini (World Bank), K.Vyborny (Duke University), A. Zwager (World Bank), L. Andrade (World Bank). Survey Data for WP9269: Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma 2015-2016 (DSS 2015-2016). Ref (BRA_2015-2016_DSS_v01_M). Downloaded from [url] on [date].
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Documentation of the Study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version