Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data
This survey is part of the Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) project, an initiative led by the World Bank. SDI surveys track the quality of service delivery in primary schools and frontline health facilities across Africa and other regions of the world. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time and aim to enhance the active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. Ultimately, the goal of the program is to support policymakers, citizens, service providers, donors, and other stakeholders in enhancing the quality of service delivery and improve development outcomes.
Since the inception of the initiative in 2010, twenty-six surveys have been completed in twelve countries in Africa, capturing the health and primary education service delivery experience of over 500 million people. The surveys have been extended in Africa (with SDIs in the pipeline or envisioned in Benin, DRC, Cameron, Madagascar, Ethiopia, Cote D’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Malawi, and Mali) and beyond: data collection for the first SDI surveys in Latin America (Guatemala), East Asia/Pacific (Indonesia), Europe and Central Asia (Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine), Middle East and North Africa (Iraq), and South Asia (Bhutan) are underway or being considered.
With the exception of Module 3 (school finances), the datasets distributed here were harmonized to a common standard to facilitate comparisons across countries and over time. The data was also anonymized to preserve the confidentiality of the data of respondents. The harmonization and anonymization work were conducted by the SDI team at the World Bank.
SDI surveys are documented in the Microdata Library as Service Delivery Indicators Health Surveys and Service Delivery Indicators Education Surveys.
The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) are a set of health and education indicators that examine the effort and ability of staff and the availability of key inputs and resources that contribute to a functioning school or health facility. The indicators are standardized allowing comparison between and within countries over time.
The Education SDIs include teacher effort, teacher knowledge and ability, and the availability of key inputs (for example, textbooks, basic teaching equipment, and infrastructure such as blackboards and toilets). The indicators provide a snapshot of the learning environment and the key resources necessary for students to learn.
Tanzania Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey was implemented between May and September 2014 by Research in Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) in close coordination with the World Bank SDI team. Four hundred primary schools were visited, 2,196 standard three, four, and five teachers were assessed on English, mathematics, and pedagogy, 3,692 teachers of all grades have been followed for absence rate. Also, although learning outcomes are not part of the indicators, 4,041 standard four pupils have been assessed on language (English/Kiswahili), mathematics, and non-verbal reasoning. It is crucial that the indicators are correlated with pupil learning outcome because the SDI is geared towards capturing the drivers of learning outcomes at the school level.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Schools, teachers, students.
v02, harmonized and anonymized data for public distribution.
Module 3 (School Management/Finances) was added to the collection. It is important to note that module 3’s variables were not harmonized to a common standard. Given different educational (and administrative) structures in each SDI country, questions for module 3 are uniquely designed according to the country’s interests and context. Nonetheless, the dataset was still subject to a thorough anonymization process like the rest of the datasets added to the collection.
Compared to v01, v02 changes include:
1. Data reorganized by the unit of analysis (school, teacher, pupil).
2. New round of data cleaning, including: renaming and relabeling variables, fixing incorrect category values, fixing incorrect value labels, adding variables from original datasets absent in the previous version, converting variables into proper variable type, deleting analysis/supervision variables, fixing and recategorizing missing observations, reordering variables to reflect instrument structure.
3. Addition of anonymized variables from module 3. Module 3 was not initially included in the previous version as the context-related uniqueness of school financial information collected in each country does not allow for harmonization.
4. New round of data harmonization (with the exception of module 3) and anonymization.
For more details on the anonymization process, please refer to the Anonymization Protocol included as part of this collection’s documentation.
The core Education Service Delivery Indicators are:
1) Teacher Effort:
- School absence rate
- Classroom absence rate
- Time spent teaching per day
2) Teacher Knowledge and Ability:
- Minimum knowledge among teachers
3) Availability of Inputs:
- Infrastructure availability
- Equipment availability
- Share of pupils with textbooks
- Observed pupil-teacher ratio
The survey also tests grade 4 pupils on mathematics, linguistics and non-verbal reasoning. Additionally, direct observations are made to assess firsthand classroom conditions as well as school inputs and infrastructure that teachers and students have readily available.
SDI instruments also include modules on school's finances and staff/teacher rosters that include their qualifications and demographic information.
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Prof. Samwel Wangwe
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Department for International Development
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
A multi-stage clustered sampling strategy was adopted for the Tanzania SDI Education Survey. The first stage cluster selection was carried out independently within each explicit stratum. The primary cluster was the council. Schools were selected at the second stage. Teacher and standard four pupils at the third stage. The sampling frame for the 2014 Tanzania Education SDI was based on the 2012 EMIS data provided by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. It was decided that within each stratum, except Dar es Salaam, 25 councils would be chosen with probability proportional to size.
The schools were chosen using probability proportional to size (PPS), where size was the number of standard two pupils as provided by the 2012 EMIS database. As for the selection of the cluster, the use of PPS implied that each standard four pupil within a stratum had an equal probability for her school to be selected.
Finally, within each school, up to 10 standard four pupils and 10 teachers were selected. Pupils were randomly selected among the standard four pupil body, whereas for teachers, there were two different procedures for measuring absence rate and assessing knowledge. For absence rate, 10 teachers were randomly selected from the teachers' roster and the whereabouts of those teachers was ascertained in a return surprise visit. For the knowledge assessment, however, all teachers who were currently teaching in primary four or taught primary three the previous school year were included in the sample. Then a random number of teachers in upper grades were included to top up the sample.
Detailed information on the sampling procedure is available in the attached report.
Deviations from the Sample Design
SDI survey estimates must be properly weighted using a sampling weight or expansion factor to estimate representativeness of the population of interest.
School, teacher, and pupil-level sampling weights are stored in the "TZN_2014_EDU_Weights.dta" file.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Tanzania Education SDI, unlike all other SDI countries, only reports on public schools. This is due to the near nonexistence of private schools at the primary level.
Research in Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
The SDI Education Survey Questionnaire consists of six modules:
Module 1: School Information - Administered to the head of the school to collect information about school type, facilities, school governance, pupil numbers, and school hours. Includes direct observations of school infrastructure by enumerators.
Module 2a: Teacher Absence and Information - Administered to head teacher and individual teachers to obtain a list of all school teachers, to measure teacher absence and to collect information about teacher characteristics.
Module 2b: Teacher Absence and Information - Unannounced visit to the school to assess absence rate.
Module 3: School Finances - Administered to the head teacher to collect information about school finances (this data is unharmonized).
Module 4: Classroom Observation - An observation module to assess teaching activities and classroom conditions.
Module 5: Pupil Assessment - A test of pupils to have a measure of pupil learning outcomes in mathematics and language in grade four.
Module 6: Teacher Assessment - A test of teachers covering mathematics and language subject knowledge and teaching skills.
Data entry was done using CSPro; quality control was performed in Stata.
Datasets have been cleaned, anonymized, and harmonized using Stata.
For some variables, missing observations were recoded and/or distinctly labeled as:
Skips: "-999", or ".a"
Don't Know: "999", "99", or ".b"
Confidential Information (Anonymized): "Confidential", or ".c "
Not Available: ".n"
Estimates of Sampling Error
For more information about the sampling process, refer to “Annex A: Tanzania SDI Sampling Strategy” in the Country Report attached as documentation.
HD Practice Group, The World Bank
Details about the anonymization process can be found in the documentation provided with these datasets.
The harmonized, anonymized datasets are available as public files (for use under a License).
Researchers who feel that they need non-anonymized data should contact email@example.com with a statement of research objectives and a rationale for why they require such data. That will start the Research Use File discussion.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Waly Wane, The World Bank. Tanzania Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey (SDI-E) 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data, Ref. TZA_2014_SDI-E_v01_M_v02_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (February 2021). This version differs from the original version as it includes:
1. Data reorganized by unit of analysis (school, teacher, pupil, time-on-task).
2. New round of data cleaning.
3. New round of data harmonization and anonymization.
4. Addition of anonymized variables from module 3 on School Management/Finances.
The metadata and documentation included in this version reflect and explain these changes.