This study examines the adoption patterns and local market spillovers of a biofortified, nutrient-rich crop introduced to women smallholder farmers in Uganda. The study employs a clustered randomized control trial (RCT) covering a large sample of households across 210 villages to test the relative efficacy of interventions to relax adoption constraints to women farmers. A series of bundled and standalone treatment conditions address the following hypothesized constraints to adoption: resource, information, credit, time inconsistency, and price risk. The program was implemented by NGO BRAC in Uganda and targeted smallholder agriculture households with a woman of reproductive age (15-49) who are the most vitamin A vulnerable (pregnant or children under 2 years).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
The World Bank
The study employs a clustered randomized control trial (RCT) design in order to estimate the treatment effects on the outcomes of interest. A total of 210 villages were randomly assigned to different treatment conditions: 30 villages to each village-level treatment arm over six treatments (180 villages) and one control group (30 villages). For each treatment arm, 40 households were randomly sampled from each village (conditional on meeting program targeting criteria) to make a total sample size of 8,400 households for the impact evaluation.
Before the program, a census of all households across four districts in southwest Uganda was conducted by the project team between December 2013 and March 2014 before any interventions with the targeted households took place. Using the census data from all households residing in 210 villages, a sampling frame was constructed based on the following targeting criteria: agricultural households cultivating five or fewer acres of land; household contains a woman of reproductive age (15-49); household contains a pregnant woman or child less than 2years of age; and female-headed households of a woman of reproductive age. Eligible households were then selected from this sample by progressively relaxing each of the aforementioned criteria until all 210 villages had fulfilled the minimum sampling requirement of 40 households per village.
The sampling strategy maximizes the number of pregnant women and under-2 children within the sample by giving greater weight to these targeting criteria, in order to capture nutritional impacts among these target groups. However, the only criterion considered binding was the requirement that the household be engaged in agriculture as the primary income-generating activity. Once all 210 villages met the minimum sampling requirement, eligible households were then randomly selected, stratified at the village level and evenly distributed across the four BRAC branches: Ibanda, Kabwohe, Kyotera and Lukaya. The village-level randomization of 210 villages was then evenly distributed across four BRAC branches at between 50-55 villages per branch and was balanced on village-level variables such as BRAC branch, village size, market access, and access to health clinics. Household-level balance variables included dummy variables for under-2 children, pregnant women, and female-headed households, as well as agricultural land acreage.
The number of household interviews completed was 7,946 for a household response rate of 95 percent. From these households, anthropometric data was collected from 2,444 children aged 0-24 months.
The primary source of data are household socioeconomic surveys to a primary woman of reproductive age (15-49 years) in treatment and control group households. From the sample of 8,400 households, a total of 7,694 questionnaires were collected at baseline prior to the intervention across the 210 villages. The baseline survey data was collected from April to June 2014 and where possible, the respondent was a female household head of reproductive age. The baseline questionnaire collected detailed information on agricultural practices, household economic outcomes, nutrition and health practices as well as anthropometric measurement of children in the household aged 2 years or under.
The household survey collected demographic characteristics for all household members, information on participation in BRAC programs, household assets and welfare indicators, income sources and shocks. Information on the household’s agricultural practices was also collected – including details on land holdings, crop production, cultivation techniques, inputs and capital, as well as market access and marketing behavior. Information on health and nutrition was collected, in particular for the respondent and young children, as well as knowledge of nutrient-rich foods and vitamin A. Respondents also provided information on financial activities. Finally, anthropometric measurements of children aged 2 years and under was collected.
Dates of Data Collection
Gender Impact Evaluation
Is signing of a confidentiality declaration required?
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
the Identification of the Primary Investigator
the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
the survey reference number
the source and date of download
The World Bank. Uganda Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes 2014, Baseline Survey (OFSP-BL). Ref: UGA_2014_OFSP-BL_v01_M. Downloaded from [url] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.