The household questionnaire contains sections that collect data on household demographic structure, education, housing conditions, land, agricultural management, household non-agricultural business, household expenditures, gifts, remittances and other income sources, and saving and loans. For some sections (general household information, schooling, housing, gift-exchange, remittance, other income, and credit and savings) the individual designated by the household members as the household head provided responses. For some other sections (farm land, agricultural management, family-run non-farm business, and household consumption expenditure) a member identified as the most knowledgeable provided responses. Identification codes for respondents of different sections indicate who provided the information. In sections where the information collected pertains to individuals (employment), whenever possible, each member of the household was asked to respond for himself or herself, except that parents were allowed to respond for younger children. Therefore, in the case of the employment section it is possible that the information was not provided by the relevant person; variables in this section indicate when this is true.
The household questionnaire was completed in a one-time interview in the summer of 1995. The survey was designed so that more sensitive issues such as credit and savings were discussed near the end. The content of each section is briefly described below.
Section 0 SURVEY INFORMATION
This section mainly summarizes the results of the survey visits. The following information was entered into the computer: whether the survey and the data entry were completed, codes of supervisor’s brief comments on interviewer, data entry operator, and related revising suggestion (e.g., 1. good, 2. revise at office, and 3. re-interview needed). Information about the date of interview, the names of interviewer, supervisor, data enterer, and detail notes of interviewer and supervisor were not entered into the computer.
Section 1 GENERAL HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION
1A HOUSEHOLD STRUCTURE
1B INFORMATION ABOUT THE HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS’ PARENTS
1C INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHILDREN WHO ARE NOT LIVING IN HOME
Section 1A lists the personal id code, sex, relationship to the household head, ethnic group, type of resident permit (agricultural [nongye], non-agricultural [fei nongye], or no resident permit), date of birth, marital status of all people who spent the previous night in that household and for household members who are temporarily away from home. The household head is listed first and receives the personal id code 1. Household members were defined to include “all the people who normally live and eat their meals together in this dwelling.” Those who were absent more than nine of the last twelve months were excluded, except for the head of household. For individuals who are married and whose spouse resides in the household, the personal id number of the spouse is noted. By doing so, information on the spouse can be collected by appropriately merging information from the section 1A and other parts of the survey.
Section 1B collects information on the parents of all household members. For individuals whose parents reside in the household, parents’ personal id numbers are noted, and information can be obtained by appropriately merging information from other parts of the survey. For individuals whose parents do not reside in the household, information is recorded on whether each parent is alive, as well as their schooling and occupation.
Section 1C collects information for children of household members who are not living in home. Children who have died are not included. The information on the name, sex, types of resident permit, age, education level, education cost, reasons not living in home, current living place, and type of job of each such child is recorded.
Section 2 SCHOOLING
In Section 2, information about literacy and numeracy, school attendance, completion, and current enrollment for all household members of preschool age and older. The interpretation of pre-school age appears to have varied, with the result that while education information is available for some children of pre-school age, not all pre-school children were included in this section. But for ages 6 and above information is available for nearly all individuals, so in essence the data on schooling can be said to apply all persons 6 age and above. For those who were enrolled in school at the time of the survey, information was also collected on school attendance, expenses, and scholarships. If applicable, information on serving as an apprentice, technical or professional training was also collected.
Section 3 EMPLOYMENT
3A GENERAL INFORMATION
3B MAJOR NON-FARM JOB IN 1994
3C THE SECOND NON-FARM JOB IN 1994
3D OTHER EMPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES IN 1994
3E SEARCHING FOR NON-FARM JOB
3F PROCESS FOR GETTING MAJOR NON-FARM JOB
3G CORVEE LABOR
All individuals age thirteen and above were asked to respond to the employment activity questions in Section 3. Section 3A collects general information on farm and non-farm employment, such as whether or not the household member worked on household own farm in 1994, when was the last year the member worked on own farm if he/she did not work in 1994, work days and hours during busy season, occupation and sector codes of the major, second, and third non-farm jobs, work days and total income of these non-farm jobs. There is a variable which indicates whether or not the individual responded for himself or herself.
Sections 3B and 3C collect detailed information on the major and the second non-farm job. Information includes number of months worked and which month in 1994 the member worked on these jobs, average works days (or hours) per month (per day), total number of years worked for these jobs by the end of 1994, different components of income, type of employment contracts. Information on employer’s ownership type and location was also collected.
Section 3D collects information on average hours spent doing chores and housework at home every day during non-busy and busy season. The chores refer to cooking, laundry, cleaning, shopping, cutting woods, as well as small-scale farm yard animals raising, for example, pigs or chickens. Large-scale animal raising is excluded. Information about days spent helping others (including farming, building houses, not including “labor exchange” activities) without compensation in 1994 was also collected.
Information on searching and getting the major non-farm job was collected in Section 3E and 3F. Section 3E contains information on the member’s estimated income which he/she could get from a non-farm job, reasons for giving up a non-farm job or not finding a non-farm job.
Section 3F contains information about how the member got the job, what kind of help he/she received from other people, the relation between the member and the person who provided certain kinds help (e.g., information or recommendation for him/her to get the job).
Section 3G collects information of the household’s corvee labor (yiwu gong). Corvee labor refers to a certain amount of work days farmers spend on collective projects (mainly collective infrastructure projects such as road construction, building and maintaining irrigation system) without compensation. Information includes the amount of corvee labor (number of work days), whether the household fulfilled its “obligation”, amount of money the household paid for hiring other people to fulfill the corvee labor if the household did not fulfill it by itself.
Section 4 HOUSING
Section 4 contains basic information on housing for all households interviewed. Information was collected on the number of rooms in the dwelling, ownership status, construction materials of the house, the year the house was built, cost of construction, current value of the house, total construction area, living area, and the area used for production purpose. Area is measured in square meters.
Section 5 FARM LAND
5A GENERAL INFORMATION OF FARM LAND
5C PLOTS COMPARISON
Whenever is possible, a household member identified as the most knowledgeable on household’s farm land situation provided responses in Section 5.
Section 5A records information on the village’s allocation of different tenure types land to the household since the Household Responsibility System (HRS) was introduced in early 1980s. Section 5A also collects information on land readjustment in past five years, land rental transaction among households, farmers’ willingness to engage in land rental activities, procurement quota, and other duties associated with land.
Section 5B contains basic information on each land plot currently farmed by the household. Information includes the time the household started to farm the plot, plot size, crops (summer and fall) planted, tenure types (e.g., responsibility land, ration land, private land), and some land quality indicators, such as irrigation condition, fertility category (high, medium, low, and very poor quality), topographic characteristics, and information on natural disaster on each plot in 1994 cropping year.
Section 5C is designed to compare the farmer’s production behavior on two plots with different land tenure types and associated land rights. Two plots, generally with different tenure types but farming the same crop, were selected for a careful investigation. Information includes labor input, animal traction, fertilizer use (organic fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, and nitrogen fertilizer), other inputs (pesticide, herbicide), seed (conventional and hybrid), output, distance from plot to home, duties associated with each plot (procurement quota, taxes, and fee), village supplied unified production services if any, tenure type, some indicators of land rights (when the plot contract will expire, who makes the decisions about crop choice).
Section 6 AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT
6A ON-FARM LABOR
6B AGRICULTURAL INPUT
6C AGRICULTURAL ASSETS, FARM MACHIMES AND EQUIPMENTS
6D1 CROP OUTPUT, DISPOSAL, STORAGE, AND MARKETING
6D2 CROP BY-PRODUCT
6E PROCESSING FARM PRODUCTS
6F LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
6G VEGETABLE PRODUCITON, ORCHARD MANAGEMENT, FOREST AND FISH POND ACTIVITIES
Whenever possible, a household member identified as the most knowledgeable on household’s farming activities provided responses in Section 6.
Section 6A collects information about on-farm labor activities, which refer to labor input in grain and cash crop production, such as basic farm land preparation, applying organic fertilizer, transplanting, irrigation activities, and harvesting. Labor input in small scale farm-yard animal raising also is included. On-farm labor, however, does not include labor input in commercialized large scale animal raising, vegetable production, orchard production, fish pond management, and corvee labor obligation.
Section 6B and 6C contain information about different agricultural inputs and agricultural assets (e.g., farm machines and equipment) respectively. Agricultural inputs refer to physical amount and/or money value of different kinds of fertilizer, herbicide and pesticide, electricity, diesel and gas. Expenses on hiring labor and labor exchange with other households also are included. In Section 6C, agricultural assets refer to tractors, mechanical plough, pump, mill or food processor, trailer for truck or tractor, and bullocks.
Section 6D1 collects information about crop output, disposal, storage, and marketing. Disposal includes self-consumption, use as seed and feed, gift, and being borrowed by other households. Marketing includes amount sold to state under procurement quota obligation and under negotiated price, amount and number of transactions at free market. Section 6D2 collects information on crop by-product.
Section 6E contains information about processing farm products, such as labor input (work days), total expense, frequency of transaction, and total income.
Section 6F includes information on livestock production, such as type and number of livestock, marketing income, expenses for raising livestock etc.. Section 6G contains information on vegetable production, orchard management, forest and fish pond production activities, such as area, investment and its sources, total output, inputs (labor, seed, fertilizer), and taxes.
Section 7 FAMILY-RUN NON-FARM BUSINESS
7A GENERAL INFORMATION
Section 7 gathers data on household non-farm businesses for the three most important enterprises operated by the household. The respondent is a household member identified as the most familiar with the business operation. Section 7A collects data on the ownership, type of business, investment and its sources for each enterprises. Section 7B contains information on assets, such as buildings, vehicles, tools, and inventory of raw materials and products. Section 7C gathers information on enterprise debt and its structure (e.g., bank loan, loan from collective or cooperative foundation, and private loan). Expenditures over the last twelve months on wage, raw materials, taxes and other management activities are collected in Section 7D. In Section 7E, the respondent is asked to report total revenue, profits, and the amount (in money) of the enterprise’s product was consumed by the household in the past twelve months.
Section 8 HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE
8A EXPENDITURES ON PURCHASING FOOD
8B HOME PRODUCED FOOD CONSUMPTION
8C NON-FOOD DAILY EXPENSES AND SERVICE EXPENDITURES
8D DURABLE GOODS EXPENDITURES
Section 8A collects detailed expenditure information on thirty-four items of market purchased food (including expenditure in restaurants) in past one year. Besides market purchases (including barter), Section 8B gathers information on consumption from home produced food (total thirty-two items) in past one year. In Section 8C, respondents were asked to recall the amount spent in past twelve months on daily expenses such as shoes, cloth, clothing, home repairs, public transport, paper supplies, kitchen equipment, medical services, jewelry, entertainment, cigarettes, soap. Amount, purchase price, year of purchase, and current value of durable goods owned were collected in Section 8D.
Section 9 GIFT-EXCHANGE, REMITTANCES, AND OTHER INCOME
9A Gifts and Remittances sent to others
9B Gifts and Remittances received from others
9C Other income
Section 9A records the information on amounts, relation and location of the recipients of remittances sent out from the household. Section 9B collects data on remittances received by the household. Section 9C contains information on other income (money and goods) from sources other than employment, such as subsidies from government, medicare subsidies, interest on saving, gifts, dowry or inheritance, and rent from land, equipment, and houses.
Section 10 CREDIT AND SAVINGS
10A MONEY AND GOODS BORROWED
10B MONEY AND GOODS LENT
Section 10A collects information on the amount of indebtedness of household members to people or institutions outside the household. General information includes number of times and number of different sources the household has ever borrowed money from in last five years. If money or goods have been borrowed, or borrowed and repaid by any household member in past five years, information is collected on those loans, including the source and amount of the loan, interest, collateral requirement, repayment schedule, reason for each time of borrowing, amount paid in 1994, and amount still owed at the end of 1994. In Section 10B, the household is asked to report the number of times it lent money or goods to other people and institutions in past five years. If money or goods have been lent, or lent and repaid by other people and institutions in past five years, information is collected on those lending activities. The household is also asked to list different places (e.g., banks, credit union, loan to enterprises, leave it at home) to put away money which is not being used for a while, and to estimate maximum amount of money can be taken from own assets in facing of some kind of disaster or need to build a new house.
A community survey was conducted in the same thirty-one sample villages from July to August in 1997. In each village, the enumerators interviewed three village leaders: the party secretary (shuji), the chairman of village committee or village leader (cunzhuren or cunzhang), and the village accountant (kuaiji). These three leaders generally are recognized as the most knowledgeable about village institutions now and in the past. The three leaders answered questions which included parts on off-farm labor, land management, local industrial management, local credit markets, periodic markets, agricultural input and output markets, and the local political institutions. Enumerators asked for information about two years – 1995 and 1988. Enumerators also collected secondary data (from 1995, 1988, and 1980) on each village from statistical records of all villages. Information includes village basic information (e.g., total land area, total number of households, total population, income per capita, sown area, outputs and procurement quotas of different crops), and village budget information.
Section 1 VILLAGE BASIC INFORMATION AND LABOR MIGRATION
The Section 1 consists of two part: village basic information and labor migration. In village basic information part, information on size of village (number of households, number of groups, number of population and labor), infrastructure condition (e.g., road condition, number of bus or other passenger vehicle pass through the village, communication system, water system), village supplied agricultural production services (transportation of production inputs, land preparation service, irrigation service, crop protection service), allocation and adjustment of procurement quotas, taxes, and fees. Information on local farm labor market and farmers’ corvee labor obligation was also collected.
Detailed information about out-migrants and in-migrants was collected in the labor migration part. Out-migrants are divided into five groups: permanent out-migrants, long-term outmigrants, commuters, self-employment, and villagers working in the village’s collective and private enterprises. In-migrants are divided into three groups: permanent in-migrants, long-term inmigrants, and commuters. For each group of migrants, information on total number of migrants, education level, age structure, ownership type of employer, first three popular jobs, and moving destinations (for permanent, long-term, and commuters of out-migrants) was collected.
Section 2 CULTIVATED LAND SYSTEM
In Section 2, village leaders answered detailed questions about cultivated land management in the village. Information includes total cultivated land area and its structure in terms of different tenure types, such as private plots (ziliu di), rationed land (kouliang tian), responsibility land (zeren tian), and contract land (chengbao tian). For each land tenure type, land rights information on who hold the power on land readjustment, rental transaction, plot exchange, crop choice, input mix decision is collected. Information on obligation or duties associated with land, such as procurement quota, agricultural taxes, and local taxes, is also gathered. Specifically, village leaders reported the frequency, reasons, average magnitude, and timing of the village’s land readjustment. Leaders also answered questions on other village-level regulations on land management, such as the village’s rental activities and related institutions (including local rules concerning renting, number of households rented land in and out, and area of land engaged in rental transaction), process of village contracting out land, situation of land fragmentation, and village’s attitude toward promoting largescale farming.
Section 3 VILLAGE STORES, PERIODIC MARKETS, AND FARMERS COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES
Section 3 has three parts. The first part gathers information on the stores in the villages, such as the number of department store, grocery store, restaurants and their ownership type (collective-run, private store). Information on where farmer buy their daily supplies and durable goods is also collected. The second part of Section 3 collects detailed information on two periodic markets the villagers attend most frequently, including location of the market and distance from the village, how long the market has been established, the frequency of marketing operation, market size (in terms of estimated number of people attended the market in 1980, 88, and 96), the reason of the market size change. Information on farmers’ major purposes for attending the market, places the most buyers and sellers come from, whether the market is a specialized market is also collected in the second part of the Section.
The third part of Section 3 contains information on farmers’ selling (proportion by different buyers), exchange, and consumption of major agricultural products, such as major grain crops, cash crop, and major livestock product. Information on farmers purchase (proportion by difference sources) of staple food and non-staple food is also collected. Price difference between market and state grain station of paddy, rice, wheat and flour in 1988 and 1996 is also collected.
Section 4 VILLAGE-RUN ENTPERPRISE
Section 4 records detailed information on one village-run enterprise. If the village has more than one enterprise, the enumerator selected one of them randomly. Information about the enterprise includes the year the business was established, major products (codes), basic information on the manager (gender, age, education, the place he/she came from, the number of years he/she has worked in the enterprise, personal experience - such as a veteran, or was a manager of a state-own enterprise, or was a government official), the relation between manager and village cadres, manager’s decision power on business affairs, the type of contract signed between village and manager etc. Information on the size of the enterprise in terms of number of workers, amount of investment, value of fixed asset, and profit is also recorded. Finally, Section 4 collects information on major methods the enterprise used to purchase raw materials and sell its products.
Section 5 RURAL CREDIT MARKET
Section 5 includes basic information on farmers’ saving, borrowing (from both financial institution and private person), and allocation of poverty alleviation fund (PAF) if applicable. Village leaders estimated the proportion of farm households which have deposits in the bank and the average amount of saving these households have. Information on major financial institutions, such as distance from the village, the transportation time needed to go these institutions, market share of different institutions, and degree of convenience to withdraw money, is also collected. Section 5 lists out some typical activities (e.g., buying production inputs, buying draft animals, running a small business, constructing a house, dealing with illness) and asks village leaders to estimate the proportion of farm households that need to borrow money, the average amount they need to borrow, and the three major borrowing sources. Village leaders also estimated the proportion of private borrowing out of total numbers of borrowing, and the interest rate of private borrowing if applicable. Finally, village leaders reported basic information on the allocation of poverty alleviation fund (PAF), such as sources of PAF, interest rate, the average income level of PAF beneficiaries, and major activities the PAF were invested.
Section 6 SEED MARKET
Section 6 collects information on local seeds market for rice, wheat, corn, and vegetable. Information in this section includes proportion of regular seeds farmers purchased from market, the price of regular and hybrid seeds, market share of different seeds supplying sources (includes private traders).
The data from Section 6 are not available for distribution.
Section 7 CORN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Hebei and Liaoning are two major corn production provinces in China. Section 7 contains basic information such as major uses of corn (e.g., for staple food, feed, brewing liquor), the history of using hybrid corn (which year started, the area sown), and three major constraints of increasing the corn yield.
Section 8 CHEMICAL FERTILIZER MARKET
Section 8 collects information on the supply and its changes of subsidized (pingjia) and non-subsidized (yijia) major kinds chemical fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphate, and potash). Information includes whether there is subsidized fertilizer, how it is allocated to farm households, and the proportion of subsidized fertilizer accounts of total amount fertilizer used by farmers. Enumerators also asked village leaders to recall the information pertaing to the development of fertilizer markets, for example, the changes to the subsidized fertilizer supply in past eight years and the reasons for these changes (e.g., when and why state stopped or resumed supplying subsidized fertilizer), whether or not the state commercial units guaranteed the supply of subsidized fertilizer, the major sources from which farmers buy chemical fertilizers, and if there was a serious shortage of fertilizer in past eight years.
Section 9 VILLAGE LEADERSHIP
Section 9 contains basic information on village-level political institutions. Information in this section includes when the Village Committee (cunweihui) was established, the frequency of election of members to the Village Committee, village leaders’ role in the village-run enterprises, and the election of party secretary. Enumerators also collected information on formation, frequency of meeting, and general attendance of the Village Assembly, the Village Representative Conference, and the Village Enterprises Management Committee. The section also records information about party secretary (shuji) and chairman of the Village Committee (cunzhuren), such as age, education level, years as a village leader, veteran or not, the job before being elected as a leader. Finally, the section collects brief information on village’s most recent and first time election, such as the year of election, content of the election, and whether or not the election is competitive (i.e., the number of candidates are more than number of positions).
Section 10 FORESTRY
Section 10 on Forestry was not administered in the 1997 survey. It was used in an earlier administration of the survey. Section 10 is only included in the Chinese version of the Community Questionnaire.