The World Bank's Informal Surveys collect data on non-registered business activities in different countries. The Informal Surveys were developed in parallel to the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys (ES), which are administered to formal, private, non-agricultural firms around the world.
In some countries unregistered enterprises make up a significant part of the economy. Understanding how informal businesses function and why they prefer to remain non-registered could help implement changes in government - business relationships.
The Informal Surveys are conducted using a uniform sampling methodology in order to minimize measurement error and yield data that are comparable across the world's economies.
This research is a survey of unregistered businesses conducted in The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between June 7 and June 21, 2010, at the same time with The Democratic Republic of the Congo 2010 Enterprise Survey. Data from 150 enterprises were analyzed.
Questionnaire topics include general information about a business, infrastructure and services, sales and supplies, crime, sources and access to finance, business-government relationship, assets, AIDS and sickness (for African region), bribery, workforce composition, obstacles to get registration, reasons for not registering, and benefits that an establishment could get from registration. The mode of data collection is face-to-face interviews.
The Informal Surveys aim to accomplish the following objectives:
1) To provide information about the state of the private sector for informal businesses in client countries;
2) To generate information about the reasons of said informality;
3) To collect useful data for the research agenda on informality;
4) To provide information on the level of activity in the informal sector of selected urban centers in each country.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The primary sampling unit of the Informal Surveys is an unregistered establishment. For DRC, informal firms were defined as those not registered with the Fédération Entreprises du Congo (FEC) and Confédération des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises du Congo (COPEMECO).
The whole population, or the universe, covered in the survey is the non-agricultural informal economy.
At the beginning of each survey, a screening procedure is conducted in order to identify eligible interviewees. At this point, a full description of all the activities of the business owner or manager is taken; based on its principal activity, a business is then classified in the manufacturing or services stratum using a list of activities developed from previous iterations of the survey. Certain activities are excluded such as strictly illegal activities (e.g., prostitution or drug trafficking) as well as individual activities that are forms of selling labor like domestic servants or windshield washers.
Producers and sponsors
The Informal Surveys are conducted in selected urban centers, which are intended to coincide with the locations for the implementation of the main Enterprise Surveys. The overall number of interviews is pre-determined.
In The Democratic Republic of the Congo, the urban centers identified were Kinshasa, Kisangani, Lubumbashi, and Matadi. At the outset, the target sample in Kinshasa was 60 interviews, in Kisangani - 30 interviews, in Lubumbashi - 40 interviews, and in Matadi was 20 interviews. The sample will be confined to the major cities covered in the running in parallel enterprise survey of the formal economy. The target number of interviews will reflect, as far as practical, the individuals' population distribution but with no more than 60% sample from a single city and no city with fewer than 20 interviews in total.
Sampling in the Informal Surveys is conducted within clearly delineated sampling zones, which are geographically determined divisions within each urban center. Sampling zones are defined at the beginning of fieldwork, and are delineated according to the concentration and geographical dispersion of informal business activity. After the sampling sizes are defined for each location, every city is divided into several zones that may or may not correspond to the administrative districts.
The zones are selected using local knowledge (information about the districts/parts of the city where most of the informal businesses are located).
The number of zones depends on the sample size for this geographic location. For example, if in a particular city there are 40 planned informal interviews (20 manufacturing and 20 services) in the city should have 10 zones (4 interviews per zone including 2 manufacturing and 2 services firms).
In DRC, using Google maps or local city maps, the target areas within each city were identified. With input from the local agency applying local knowledge, the starting points were defined. The number of zones was determined by the target sample size for each city divided by the cluster size (4 interviews). This is the only element of the sample selection where there is local influence.
In Kinshasa, for a total of 60 interviews, 15 sampling zones were initially identified (60/4=15 zones). In Lubumbashi, a total of 40 interviews yielded 10 sampling zones (40/4 = 10 zones). In Matadi, a total of 20 interviews yielded 5 sampling zones (20/4 = 5 zones). In Kinsangani, only 6 sampling zones were drawn and some zones were over or under sampled. As described above, the criteria used in choosing these sample sectors was a combination of territorial dispersion and the presence of informal businesses.
In order to provide information on diverse aspects of the informal economy, the sample is designed to have equal proportions of services and manufacturing (50:50). These sectors are defined by responses provided by each informal business to a question on the business's main activity included in the screener portion of the questionnaire. Manufacturing activity in the informal sector includes business activity requiring inputs and/or intermediate goods. Thus, for example, the processing of coffee, sugar, oil, dried fruit, or other processed foods is considered manufacturing, while the simple selling of these goods falls under services. If an informal business conducts a mixture of these activities, the business is considered under the manufacturing stratum.
In order to ensure a degree of geographical dispersion within each sampling zone, two starting points were identified. Each starting point is marked on the map and is usually located at a major intersection or other prominent point at the edge of a zone. The road(s) that the interviewer should follow and the direction the interviewer should take is also marked on the map created by the local consultant.
Each sampling zone, including its two starting points, were marked using Google maps, with the GPS coordinates of the starting points being systematically recorded. Additionally, when obtaining a complete interview, the exact address of the informal business (or where the interview took place) was registered by the interviewer. Once in the office, this address was searched in Google maps, and its GPS coordinates were registered in a fieldwork report.
If no address was immediately available, using local knowledge, the GPS coordinates were determined using imaging via Google maps. In order to preserve confidentiality, the exact coordinates of businesses are not published.
Due to issues of non-response, in the process of fieldwork, the implementing contractor was unable to obtain the targeted four interviews in each of the originally delineated sectors.
As a result, replacement sectors were delineated, ex post. Additionally, the implementing contractor noted that in various interviews there were notable shortfalls in response rates to certain questions. For these reasons, additional interviews were authorized. These were distributed according to the discretion of the implementing contractor in DRC, with authorization from the World Bank.
In sum, there were 36 zones in DRC; Kinshasa (15 zones), Kisangani (6 zones), Lubumbashi (10 zones), and Matadi (5 zones).
Complete information regarding the sampling methodology can be found in "Description of The Democratic Republic of the Congo Informal Survey Implementation" in "Technical Documents" folder.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The surveys were implemented following a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, a screener questionnaire was applied to determine eligibility of a business or activity; once a business or activity was identified as eligible, willing participants were interviewed. While in theory this procedure allows interviewers to schedule an appointment at a later time, in reality, the vast majority of screener and full interviews were realized in immediate succession.
University of Kinsasha
The current survey instrument is available:
- Informal Questionnaire.
The survey topics include general information about a business, infrastructure and services, sales and supplies, crime, sources and access to finance, business-government relationship, assets, AIDS and sickness (for African region), bribery, workforce composition, obstacles to get registration, reasons for not registering, and benefits that an establishment could get from registration.
Data entry and quality controls are implemented by the contractor and data is delivered to the World Bank in batches (typically 10%, 50% and 100%). These data deliveries are checked for logical consistency, out of range values, skip patterns, and duplicate entries. Problems are flagged by the World Bank and corrected by the implementing contractor through data checks, callbacks, and revisiting establishments.
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
Firm-level data is available to the public free-of-charge. In order to access the data, users must agree to abide by a strict confidentiality agreement available through Enterprise Analysis Unit website by clicking on "External users register here" at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/Portal
Where necessary please site the source as "Enterprise Analysis Unit - World Bank Group https://www.enterprisesurveys.org"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
DDI Document version