INDEPTH Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health 2007
World Health Survey [hh/whs]
The WHO-INDEPTH Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health is the first round of the SAGE surveys in the INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance sites. SAGE was designed by WHO and implemented by the health and demographic surveillance sites in participating countries.
The multi-country Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) is run by the World Health Organization's Multi-Country Studies unit in the Innovation, Information, Evidence and Research Cluster. SAGE is part of the unit's Longitudinal Study Programme which is compiling longitudinal data on the health and well-being of adult populations, and the ageing process, through primary data collection and secondary data analysis. INDEPTH SAGE Wave 1 (2006/7) provides data on the health and well-being of adults in: Ghana, India and South Africa.
To obtain reliable, valid and comparable health, health-related and well-being data over a range of key domains for adult and older adult populations in nationally representative samples
To examine patterns and dynamics of age-related changes in health and well-being using longitudinal follow-up of a cohort as they age, and to investigate socio-economic consequences of these health changes
To supplement and cross-validate self-reported measures of health and the anchoring vignette approach to improving comparability of self-reported measures, through measured performance tests for selected health domains
To collect health examination and biomarker data that improves reliability of morbidity and risk factor data and to objectively monitor the effect of interventions
To generate large cohorts of older adult populations and comparison cohorts of younger populations for following-up intermediate outcomes, monitoring trends, examining transitions and life events, and addressing relationships between determinants and health, well-being and health-related outcomes
To develop a mechanism to link survey data to demographic surveillance site data
To build linkages with other national and multi-country ageing studies
To improve the methodologies to enhance the reliability and validity of health outcomes and determinants data
To provide a public-access information base to engage all stakeholders, including national policy makers and health systems planners, in planning and decision-making processes about the health and well-being of older adults
INDEPTH SAGE's first full round of data collection included persons aged 50 years and older in the health and demographic surveillance sites. All persons aged 50+ years (for example, spouses and siblings) were invited to participate. Standardized SAGE survey instruments were used in all countries consisting of two main parts: 1) household questionnaire; 2) individual questionnaire. The procedures for including country-specific adaptations to the standardized questionnaire and translations into local languages from English follow those developed by and used for the World Health Survey.
- Household questionnaire
0100 Sampling Information
0200 Geocoding and GPS Information
0300 Recontact Information
0350 Contact Record
0400 Household Roster
0450 Kish Tables and Household Consent
0600 Household and Family Support Networks and Transfers
0700 Assets and Household Income
0800 Household Expenditures
0900 Interviewer Observations
- Individual questionnaire
1000 Socio-Demographic Characteristics
1500 Work History and Benefits
2000 Health State Descriptions and Vignettes
2500 Anthropometrics, Performance Tests and Biomarkers
3000 Risk Factors and Preventive Health Behaviours
4000 Chronic Conditions and Health Services Coverage
5000 Health Care Utilization
6000 Social Cohesion
7000 Subjective Well-Being and Quality of Life (WHOQoL-8 and Day Reconstruction Method)
8000 Impact of Caregiving
9000 Interviewer Assessment
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
households and individuals
Version 01: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
The scope of the INDEPTH Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health includes:
Household: household characteristics, housing, household and family support, assets and household income, household expenditure.
Individual: socio demographic characteristics, work history, health state, anthropometrics, performance tests and biomarkers, risk factors, chronic conditions and health service coverage, health care utilisation, social cohesion, subjective well-being and quality of life, caregiving.
International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in developing countries (INDEPTH)
Ageing, Alcohol, Asthma, Blindness, Cancer, Cataract, Cervical cancer, Chronic diseases, COPD, Depression, Diabetes, Diet, Disabilities, Epidemiology, Health financing, Health services, Health surveys, Health systems, Heart disease, Indoor air pollution, Injuries traffic, Mapping, Noncommunicable diseases, Nutrition, Obesity, Oral Health, Passive smoking, Physical activity, Poverty, Primary health care, Risk factors, Sanitation, Social determinants of health, Statistics, Stroke, Suicide, Tobacco, Visual impairment, Water
Kassena-Nankana District of the Upper East region of Ghana.
Navrongo Health and Demographic Surveillance Site fifty plus population
Producers and sponsors
Navrongo Health Research Centre
Ghana Health Service
US National Institute on Aging
Financial support through Interagency Agreements (OGHA 04034785; YA1323-08-CN-0020; Y1-AG-1005-01) and Grants (R01-AG034479; IR21-AG034263-0182)
Dr Richard Suzman
The National Institute on Aging's Division of Behavioral and Social Research
Dr Suzman was Instrumental in providing continuous intellectual and other technical support to SAGE and has made the entire endeavour possible
Single random sample of individuals 50+ years. Sampling frame obtained from demographic surveillance database. No replacement of individuals not met, not found or for refusals.
A total of 900 were sampled. 593 successful respondents in data set. Response rate (593/900) is 65.9%
The questionnaires were based on the WHS Model Questionnaire with some modification and many new additions. A household questionnaire was administered to all households eligible for the study. An Individual questionnaire was administered to eligible respondents identified from the household roster. The questionnaires were developed in English and were piloted as part of the SAGE pretest. All documents were translated into XX. All INDEPTH SAGE generic questionnaires are available as external resources.
Dates of Data Collection
Mode of data collection
Navrongo Health Research Centre
Ghana Health Service
A research assistant reviewed all completed questionnaires for consistency, missed items and other errors. Questionnaires with errors were returned to the interviewer for correction. Regular meetings were held with interviewers and the research team to review performance and address problems encountered in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Sixteen individuals with tertiary qualifications who were fluent in the local languages (Kassim or Nankam) were recruited and trained as interviewers. Training of interviewers took place from 12 February to 9 March, 2007. A pre-test of the survey instruments was included as part of the training. At the end of the training, thirteen individuals were selected to conduct the data collection. Eleven persons conducted the face-to-face interviews while two persons performed the measured tests. The interview team visited selected respondents in their houses, explained the study to them and invited them to participate in the survey. Written informed consent was obtained before individuals were interviewed in their local language. The measurement team visited respondents a few days after the interview to administer various tests and take measurements. Data collection took place from 12 March to 5 July, 2007. Two supervisors visited interviewers daily to observe the fieldwork and address any problems interviewers experienced.
Data editing took place at a number of stages including:
(1) office editing and coding
(2) during data entry
(3) structural checking of the CSPro files
(4) range and consistency secondary edits in Stata
World Health Organization
the user undertakes:
(1) to keep confidential any information concerning individual persons or households
(2) not to distribute the data to any other user
(3) to use the data for scientific research only
(4) to share any planned publications with WHO prior to publication
Publications based on INDEPTH SAGE data should use the following acknowledgement: "This paper uses data from the WHO INDEPTH Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)."
Disclaimer and copyrights
The data is being distributed without warranty of any kind. The responsibility for the use of the data lies with the user. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.