The Effects of Childcare on Women and Children: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation, 2019
Other Household Survey [hh/oth]
This is the baseline survey conducted in December 2019 of the mobile creche impact evaluation project in Burkina Faso.
The government of Burkina Faso through its Youth Employment and Skills Project (PEJDC) recruited 10,255 young women (85%) and men (15%) in 49 communes to implement labor-intensive public works (“PTR-HIMO”, in French) in all regions of the country from mid-July 2019.
The eligibility conditions were:
i) being a Burkina Faso citizen;
ii) out of school or never enrolled in school;
iii) not a former beneficiary of the project; and
iv) aged 16 to 35.
PTR-HIMO participants were selected through a call for applications for the public work scheme in each commune by the government. The childcare intervention was designed to address the constraint that childcare responsibilities impose on women’s time. Prior to the intervention, female public works participants typically organized themselves by identifying some among them to look after their children while the others were conducting the public works. The PEJDC project team developed the “mobile creches” as an innovative childcare intervention to formalize childcare responsibilities by establishing a quality source of childcare that would allow women to focus on productive activities. This development process involved close collaboration with the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Women. The intervention was introduced as a pilot in Manga, one of the communes of a preceding World Bank-financed public works project. The mobile creches childcare intervention was integrated in the public works component of the PEJDC to follow participants as they move from work site to work site.
The intervention includes:
i) availability during PTR-HIMO working hours of full coverage tents or existing safe spaces that offer an environment designed specifically for children aged 0 to 6 years, with added protection from the sun, dust, inclement weather, and potential accidents;
ii) two nutritious meals per day
iii) low-cost toys and learning materials; and
iv) information for parents on childcare and nutrition based on contents from Burkina’s national program of parental education.
The maximum capacity for each childcare center was 50 children. Satellite creches were also introduced close to the public works site to allow breastfeeding infants to remain close to their mothers. Each childcare center was operated by 7 to 10 public works participants who received a 3-day training to become “brigadieres assistantes maternelles” (BAMs) and would then attend to children in the centers. Interested participants at each public works site were asked to volunteer. Volunteers were screened based on a set of selection criteria, after which 10 volunteers from each site were selected to receive a 3-day training before starting to operate the childcare centers. BAMs received the same compensation as other brigadiers and worked the same schedule of hours but at the childcare centers instead of working in the labor-intensive public works assigned to their peers.
BAMs continued to receive the same 37,000 FCFA monthly wage for each month they worked at the childcare centers after the public works ended. Centers were supported by supervision visits from government education and social workers. Parents were asked to provide a nominal contribution of approximately USD 6 per month for snacks, although this was on a voluntary basis and payment was not enforced. During the public works, the childcare centers officially operated during the same hours as the public works, i.e., 8 am to 2 pm. In practice, the centers were open as early as 6 am to welcome the children.
Unit of Analysis
- v2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
In December 2019, we conducted a baseline survey of female respondents, any cohabiting partners, and children aged 0 to 6, through face-to-face interviews. The baseline questionnaire asked women participants about their :
- household composition,
- demographic background,
- economic activities of the respondent and any co-resident partner,
- dwelling and assets,
- knowledge and practices on child health and nutrition,
- input into productive decisions of the respondent and any co-resident partner,
- freedom of movement,
- acceptance towards domestic violence,
- sharing of housework,
- mental health , and
- time use.
We directly interviewed the woman and cohabiting partner. Also,
- we asked about the primary caregiver for each child for each hour over the past 24 hours.
- we measured child development using the Development Milestone Checklist (DMC III), which was adapted and validated in Burkina Faso for children aged 0 to 8 (Prado et al.,2014). The DMC III includes questions on gross motor, fine motor, and language skills. Due to the time demands of administering the DMC, we randomly selected one child aged 0 to 2 and one child aged 3 to 5 from each household to include in the sample, instead of administering it to all children in each household . The baseline sample includes 2,150 households and 3,126 children.
Our impact evaluation focuses on 36 urban public works sites in 17 communes of the PEJDC intervention area in 9 regions of Burkina Faso (Boucle du Mouhoun, Centre, Centre-East, Centre-North, Centre-West, Centre-South, Hauts Bassins, North, Plateau Central). The 36 sites were selected based on their potential to support a childcare center. The number of participants at each site ranged from 100 to 500 and the proportion of women ranged from to 58 to 96%.
We used a computer program to randomly assign the 36 urban public works sites in the research sample into a treatment group (18 sites) with the implementation of community-based childcare centers and a control group (18 sites) with no childcare centers. To increase the similarity of the 2 groups, the randomization was stratified across 10 blocks based on the geographical location and number of brigadiers assigned to each site. The sites were defined by communes (municipalities) in smaller urban areas and by arrondissements (neighborhoods) in the two larger cities of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso.
Units: Communes (municipalities) in smaller urban areas and arrondissements (neighborhoods) in the two larger cities
Producers and sponsors
Kehinde F Ajayi
Center for Global Development (CGD)
The World Bank
The World Bank
Our sample comes from the register of public works participants in the 36 study sites. We began with a screening survey to restrict our sampling frame to women who were primary caregivers for a child aged 0 to 6 (because the centers were open to children below the age of 7). Among participants meeting these eligibility criteria, we randomly selected 2,160 individuals. In each of the 36 sites, the size of the sample was proportional to the number of eligible participants in that site. The study sample, therefore, included 2,160 households, with data collected on the 2,160 female public works participants, their spouses or partners if co-residing, and any children aged 0-6 in their care, for a total of up to 4,320 individual interviews and a minimum of 2,160 child assessments.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Kehinde F Ajayi (Center for Global Development (CGD)), Estelle Koussoubé (The World Bank), Aziz Dao (The World Bank). Burkina Faso - The Effects of Childcare on Women and Children: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation, 2019, Baseline Survey (PEJDCIE-BL 2019). Ref: BFA_2019_PEJDCIE-BL_v01_M. Downloaded from [uri] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.