An Enterprise Survey is a firm-level survey of a representative sample of an economy's private sector. Firm-level surveys have been conducted since 2002 by different units within the World Bank. Since 2005-06, most data collection efforts have been centralized within the Enterprise Analysis Unit. Data is used to create indicators that benchmark the quality of the business and investment climate across countries.
The 2007 Nigeria Enterprise Survey was part of the UK Department for International Development/World Bank Group Investment Climate Program (ICP) that was launched by the Minister of Finance in August 2007. This program was a response to the request from the Nigeria Federal Minister of Finance to the World Bank Group and UK Department for International Development (DFID) to assist in the development of a diagnostic base on which enterprise and investment climate constraints could be measured and benchmarked internally across the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria and internationally against key comparator countries, particularly the "BRIC" countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China).
The survey was conducted between September 2007 and February 2008. Data from 2387 establishments was analyzed. The survey was administered across 11 states (Abia, Anambra, Abuja, Bauchi, Cross Rivers, Enugu, Kaduna, Kano, Lagos, Ogun and Sokoto) and included manufacturing and services firms of different sizes.
The objective of the Enterprise Surveys is to obtain feedback from companies in client countries on the state of the private sector as well as to help in building a panel of enterprise data that will make it possible to track changes in the business environment over time, thus allowing, for example, impact assessments of reforms. Through face-to-face interviews with firms in the manufacturing and services sectors, the survey assesses the constraints to private sector growth and creates statistically significant business environment indicators that are comparable across countries.
The standard Enterprise Survey topics include firm characteristics, gender participation, access to finance, annual sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, and performance measures. Over 90% of the questions objectively ascertain characteristics of a country’s business environment. The remaining questions assess the survey respondents’ opinions on what are the obstacles to firm growth and performance.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The primary sampling unit of the study is the establishment. An establishment is a physical location where business is carried out and where industrial operations take place or services are provided. A firm may be composed of one or more establishments. For example, a brewery may have several bottling plants and several establishments for distribution. For the purposes of this survey an establishment must make its own financial decisions and have its own financial statements separate from those of the firm. An establishment must also have its own management and control over its payroll.
The whole population, or the universe, covered in the Enterprise Surveys is the non-agricultural economy. It comprises: all manufacturing sectors according to the ISIC Revision 3.1 group classification (group D), construction sector (group F), services sector (groups G and H), and transport, storage, and communications sector (group I). Note that this population definition excludes the following sectors: financial intermediation (group J), real estate and renting activities (group K, except sub-sector 72, IT, which was added to the population under study), and all public or utilities sectors.
Producers and sponsors
UK Department for International Development
UK Department for International Development
The sample includes 2387 establishments: 1891 enterprises have at least 5 full-time employees and 496 are micro establishments with less than 5 full-time workers.
The sample for enterprises with more than four employees was designed using stratified random sampling with strata defined by region, sector and firm size.
Establishments located in 11 states - Abia, Anambra, Abuja, Bauchi, Cross Rivers, Enugu, Kaduna, Kano, Lagos, Ogun and Sokoto - were interviewed.
Following the ISIC (revision 3.1) classification, the following industries were targeted: all manufacturing sectors (group D), construction (group F), retail and wholesale services (subgroups 52 and 51 of group G), hotels and restaurants (group H), transport, storage, and communications (group I), and computer and related activities (sub-group 72 of group K). For establishments with five or more full-time permanent paid employees, this universe was stratified according to the following categories of industry:
1. Manufacturing: Food and Beverages (Group D, sub-group 15);
2. Manufacturing: Garments (Group D, sub group 18);
3. Manufacturing: Other Manufacturing (Group D excluding sub-groups 15 and 18);
4. Retail Trade: (Group G, sub-group 52);
5. Rest of the universe, including:
• Construction (Group F);
• Wholesale trade (Group G, sub-group 51);
• Hotels, bars and restaurants (Group H);
• Transportation, storage and communications (Group I);
• Computer related activities (Group K, sub-group 72).
Size stratification was defined following the standardized definition used for the Enterprise Surveys: small (5 to 19 employees), medium (20 to 99 employees), and large (more than 99 employees). For stratification purposes, the number of employees was defined on the basis of reported permanent full-time workers.
The sampling frame of establishments with 5 employees and more was built with lists sourced from the Nigeria Manufacturer Association, the National Bureau of Statistics in Abia, Anambra, Abuja, Cross River, Enugu, Kaduna, Lagos, the ministry of commerce and industry in Ogun, Kano, Bauchi, and from the Abuja Business Directory, the Sokoto Business Directory. This master list was used to set the target sample size for each stratum. During the survey period, the list was updated as new information regarding establishments that had closed or were out-of-scope was gathered. The final population size in all strata and locations was 771018 with the vast majority of establishments operating in the micro and manufacturing strata. The sample (including the entire rest of universe and retail sample in each state) was selected at random from the master list by a computer program.
In this survey, the micro establishment stratum covers all establishments of the targeted categories of economic activity with less than 5 employees. The implementing agency (EEC Canada) selected an aerial sampling approach to estimate the population of establishments and select the sample in this stratum for all states of the survey.
First, to randomly select individual micro establishments for surveying, the following procedure was followed: i) select districts and specific zones of each district where there was a high concentration of micro establishments; ii) count all micro establishments in these specific zones; iii) based on this count, create a virtual list and select establishments at random from that virtual list; and iv) based on the ratio between the number selected in each specific zone and the total population in that zone, create and apply a skip rule for selecting establishments in that zone.
The districts and the specific zones were selected at first according to local sources. The EEC team then went in the field to verify the sources and to count micro establishments. Once the count for each zone was completed, the numbers were sent back to EEC head office in Montreal.
At the head office, the count by zone was converted into one list of sequential numbers for the whole survey region, and a computer program performed a random selection of the determined number of establishments from the list. Then, based on the number that the computer selected in each specific zone, a skip rule was defined to select micro establishments to survey in that zone. The skip rule for each zone was sent back to the EEC field team.
In Nigeria, enumerators were sent to each zone with instructions how to apply the skip rule defined for that zone as well as how to select replacements in the event of a refusal or other cause of non-participation.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Private contractors conduct the Enterprise Surveys on behalf of the World Bank. Due to sensitive survey questions addressing business-government relations and corruption-related topics, private contractors are preferred over any government agency or an organization/institution associated with government, and are hired by the World Bank to collect the data.
The Enterprise Surveys are usually implemented following a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, a screener questionnaire is applied over the phone to determine eligibility and to make appointments; in the second stage, a face-to-face interview takes place with the Manager/Owner/Director of each establishment. Sometimes the survey respondent calls company accountants and human resource managers into the interview to answer questions in the sales and labor sections of the survey.
All Enterprise Surveys are conducted in the local languages.
Etude Economique Conseil
The current survey instruments are available:
- Core Questionnaire + Manufacturing Module [ISIC Rev.3.1: 15-37]
- Core Questionnaire + Retail Module [ISIC Rev.3.1: 52]
- Core Questionnaire [ISIC Rev.3.1: 45, 50, 51, 55, 60-64, 72]
- Micro Establishments Questionnaire (for establishments with 1 to 4 employees).
The "Core Questionnaire" is the heart of the Enterprise Survey and contains the survey questions asked of all firms across the world. There are also two other survey instruments - the "Core Questionnaire + Manufacturing Module" and the "Core Questionnaire + Retail Module." The survey is fielded via three instruments in order to not ask questions that are irrelevant to specific types of firms, e.g. a question that relates to production and nonproduction workers should not be asked of a retail firm. In addition to questions that are asked across countries, all surveys are customized and contain country-specific questions. An example of customization would be including tourism-related questions that are asked in certain countries when tourism is an existing or potential sector of economic growth.
The survey topics include firm characteristics, gender participation, access to finance, annual sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, registration, and performance measures. The questionnaire also assesses the survey respondents' opinions on what are the obstacles to firm growth and performance.
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
Aggregate indicators based on Enterprise Survey data are available to the public at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org
Firm-level data is also available to the public free-of-charge. In order to access the data, users must agree to abide by a strict confidentiality agreement available through Enterprise Analysis Unit website by clicking on "External users register here" at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/Portal
Where necessary please site the source as "Enterprise Analysis Unit - World Bank Group https://www.enterprisesurveys.org"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.