The Ghana Enterprise Survey was conducted in June 2007. Data from 616 establishments in private manufacturing and services sectors were analyzed.
The objective of the survey is to obtain feedback from enterprises in client countries on the state of the private sector as well as to help in building a panel of enterprise data that will make it possible to track changes in the business environment over time, thus allowing, for example, impact assessments of reforms. Through face-to-face interviews with firms in the manufacturing and services sectors, the survey assesses the constraints to private sector growth and creates statistically significant business environment indicators that are comparable across countries.
The standard Enterprise Survey topics include firm characteristics, gender participation, access to finance, annual sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, and performance measures. Over 90% of the questions objectively ascertain characteristics of a country’s business environment. The remaining questions assess the survey respondents’ opinions on what are the obstacles to firm growth and performance.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of analysis
The primary sampling unit of the study is the establishment. An establishment is a physical location where business is carried out and where industrial operations take place or services are provided. A firm may be composed of one or more establishments. For example, a brewery may have several bottling plants and several establishments for distribution. For the purposes of this survey an establishment must make its own financial decisions and have its own financial statements separate from those of the firm. An establishment must also have its own management and control over its payroll.
The whole population, or the universe, covered in the Enterprise Surveys is the non-agricultural economy. It comprises: all manufacturing sectors according to the ISIC Revision 3.1 group classification (group D), construction sector (group F), services sector (groups G and H), and transport, storage, and communications sector (group I). Note that this population definition excludes the following sectors: financial intermediation (group J), real estate and renting activities (group K, except sub-sector 72, IT, which was added to the population under study), and all public or utilities sectors.
Producers and sponsors
The sample for registered establishments in Ghana was selected using stratified random sampling. Three levels of stratification were used in the Ghana sample: firm sector, firm size and region.
The survey targeted establishments located in Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, and Tamale in the following industries (according to ISIC, revision 3.1): all manufacturing sectors (group D), construction (group F), retail and wholesale services (sub-groups 52 and 51 of group G), hotels and restaurants (group H), transport, storage, and communications (group I), and computer and related activities (sub-group 72 of group K).
Size stratification was defined following the standardized definition used for the Enterprise Surveys: micro (1 to 4 employees), small (5 to 19 employees), medium (20 to 99 employees), and large (more than 99 employees). For stratification purposes, the number of employees was defined on the basis of reported permanent full-time workers.
A satisfactory list of establishments was sourced from the Ghana Statistical Service. This list was used to set the target sample size for each stratum. During the survey period, the master list was updated as new information regarding establishments that had closed or were out-of-scope was gathered. The final population size in all strata and locations was 22123, with the vast majority of establishments operating in the micro and manufacturing strata.
In Ghana, the survey included panel data collected from establishments surveyed in the 2003 Oxford Investment Climate Survey (ICS) of Ghana. That survey included establishments in all four manufacturing strata distributed across the entire country. In order to collect the largest possible set of panel data, an attempt was made to contact and survey every establishment in the panel, provided it was located in one of the four cities covered by this survey, it operated in the universe under study, and that the number of panel firms of a certain size in a given industry in a given city did not exceed the number of establishments in the corresponding sample structure. The remainder of the sample (including the entire rest of universe and retail sample in each city) was selected at random from the master list by a computer program.
In this survey, the micro establishment stratum covers all establishments of the targeted categories of economic activity with less than 5 employees. Due to difficulty to obtain trustworthy information from official sources about micro establishments, the implementing agency (EEC Canada) selected an aerial sampling approach to estimate the population of establishments and select the sample in this stratum for all regions of the survey.
First, to randomly select individual micro establishments for surveying, the following procedure was followed: i) select districts and specific zones of each district where there was a high concentration of micro establishments; ii) count all micro establishments in these specific zones; iii) based on this count, create a virtual list and select establishments at random from that virtual list; and iv) based on the ratio between the number selected in each specific zone and the total population in that zone, create and apply a skip rule for selecting establishments in that zone.
The districts and the specific zones were selected at first according to national sources. The implementing team then went in the field to verify these national sources and to count micro establishments. Once the count for each zone was completed, the numbers were sent back to EEC head office in Montreal.
At the head office, the count by zone was converted into one list of sequential numbers for the whole survey region, and a computer program performed a random selection of the determined number of establishments from the list. Then, based on the number that the computer selected in each specific zone, a skip rule was defined to select micro establishments to survey in that zone. The skip rule for each zone was sent back to the EEC field team.
In Ghana, enumerators were sent to each zone with instructions to how to apply the skip rule defined for that zone as well as how to select replacements in the event of a refusal or other cause of non-participation.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The current survey instruments are available:
- Core Questionnaire + Manufacturing Module [ISIC Rev.3.1: 15-37]
- Core Questionnaire + Retail Module [ISIC Rev.3.1: 52]
- Core Questionnaire [ISIC Rev.3.1: 45, 50, 51, 55, 60-64, 72]
- Micro Establishments Questionnaire (for establishments with 1 to 4 employees).
The "Core Questionnaire" is the heart of the Enterprise Survey and contains the survey questions asked of all firms across the world. There are also two other survey instruments - the "Core Questionnaire + Manufacturing Module" and the "Core Questionnaire + Retail Module." The survey is fielded via three instruments in order to not ask questions that are irrelevant to specific types of firms, e.g. a question that relates to production and nonproduction workers should not be asked of a retail firm. In addition to questions that are asked across countries, all surveys are customized and contain country-specific questions. An example of customization would be including tourism-related questions that are asked in certain countries when tourism is an existing or potential sector of economic growth.
The survey topics include firm characteristics, gender participation, access to finance, annual sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, registration, and performance measures. The questionnaire also assesses the survey respondents' opinions on what are the obstacles to firm growth and performance.
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
Aggregate indicators based on Enterprise Survey data are available to the public at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org
Firm-level data is also available to the public free-of-charge. In order to access the data, users must agree to abide by a strict confidentiality agreement available through Enterprise Analysis Unit website by clicking on "External users register here" at https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/Portal
Where necessary please site the source as "Enterprise Analysis Unit - World Bank Group https://www.enterprisesurveys.org"
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The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.